F O R E IG N P O L IC Y S O C I E T Y E D U C AT IO N ECO N O M Y C U LT U R E 2023 E DI T IO N a b o u t F a c t s G e r m a n y
Contents AT A GLANCE The Federal Republic Elections in Germany Political System Federal Government Parliament and Parties Federal Presidents and Federal Chancellors Basic Law, Coat of Arms and Symbols Population Geography and Climate 4 7 8 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 22 Political Alignment of the Federal Government 25 28 Structure of the Federal Republic 32 Facts and Figures 35 Diverse Participation Active Culture of Remembrance 36 PARTNERS IN EUROPE AND AROUND THE WORLD Shared Responsibility Advocate for European Integration Commitment to Peace and Security Facts and Figures Upholding Human Rights Promoting Sustainable Development 38 41 44 48 52 54 58 CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT 60 Climate Policy Pioneer 63 Transforming Energy for the Next Generation 67 70 Facts and Figures International Climate Cooperation 72 74 Mobility for the Future Vital Diversity 76 ECONOMY AND DIGITALISATION Innovative Economy Global Player Facts and Figures Enterprise and Industry 4.0 Attractive Employment Market 78 81 84 88 91 94 EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 96 Thriving Research Location Ambitious Cutting-Edge Research Dynamic University System Science Diplomacy for Global Challenges Facts and Figures Two-Track Vocational Training Attractive School System 99 102 105 108 110 112 114 DIVERSE SOCIETY Enriched by Diversity Migration and Integration Diverse Ways of Life Facts and Figures Freedom of Religion Strong Welfare State Families and Equal Rights Active Civil Society 116 119 122 126 128 130 132 134 136 CULTURE AND MEDIA 138 A Land with a Thriving Culture Cultural Dialogue Artistic and Cultural Freedom Guaranteed Freedom of the Press Facts and Figures Attractive Language 141 144 146 148 150 152 LIVING IN GERMANY 154 Land of Diversity Leisurely Enjoyment Cities – a Great Place to Live Sporting Challenges Popular Travel Destination Facts and Figures DISCOVER GERMANY ONLINE PHOTO CREDITS INDEX IMPRINT 157 160 163 164 166 168 170 172 173 176
Foreword What do you need to know about Germany and its 16 federal states? What are the national and international policy priorities for the Federal Government, from climate protection to security policy? How do German businesses trade on the global market? What makes Germany attractive as a research location? What does the German cultural and media landscape have to offer? What is life like for the people between the North Sea and the Alps? You’ll find the answers to these and many more questions in “Facts about Germany”. This book is aimed at international readers in particular to help them get to know the modern and cosmopolitan country at the heart of Europe. The hand- book offers exhaustive basic information and numerous points of orientation. Over the course of nine chapters, “Facts about Germany” explains what makes Germany's political system, economy, education system and culture so different. This edition, updated in 2022, also includes many quotations and illustrations showing how models and solutions are being discussed and implemented in a period of global turmoil. The print edition of “Facts about Germany” is accompanied by a comprehensive website that will be regularly updated and goes into depth on these topics.
At a glance FEDERAL REPUBLIC The Federal Republic of Germany is situated in the heart of Europe and is a cosmopolitan, democratic country. Federalism is a defining feature of Germany. The Bundesrat is the second chamber of the German parliament. It is here that the 16 federal states (Länder) participate in the legislative process. POLITICAL SYSTEM The Federal Republic of Germany is a parliamentary democracy. The highest-ranking representative of the country is the Federal President, but the Federal Chancellor holds the greatest political decision-making power. PARLIAMENT & PARTIES The German Bundestag is elected every four years. Representatives of seven different parties have held seats in the Bundestag since the 2021 elections. BASIC LAW The 146 articles of the German Constitution take precedence over all other German legal regulations. IN THE HEART OF EUROPE Germany shares borders with nine countries. No other country in Europe has more neighbours.
Since the foundation of the Federal Republic in 1949 eight men and one woman have held the office of Federal Chancellor. G E R M A N Y AT A G L A N C E 7 Facts BERLIN IS THE CAPITAL Almost 3.8 million people live there. The German Bundestag currently comprises 736 REPRESENTATIVES. Covering 357,588km2 Germany is the fourth-largest country in the EU. 83 MILLION PEOPLE live in Germany. Germany is made up of 16 Länder. NINE COUNTRIES share borders with Germany in the heart of Europe.
F E D E R A L R E P U B L IC THE 16 LÄNDER Kiel SCHLESWIG- HOLSTEIN MECKLENBURG- WEST POMERANIA HAMBURG Schwerin BREMEN LOWER SAXONY BRANDENBURG BERLIN Hanover Magdeburg Potsdam SAXONY-ANHALT Erfurt Dresden THURINGIA SAXONY NORTH RHINE- WESTPHALIA Düsseldorf HESSE Wiesbaden RHINELAND- PALATINATE Mainz SAARLAND Saarbrücken Stuttgart BAVARIA BADEN- WURTTEMBERG Munich State capital Germany is a federal democracy The Fed- eral Government and the 16 Länder (states) each have their own areas of responsibility. Responsibility for internal security, schools, universities, culture, and municipal administration lies with the states. At the same time, state administrations implement both their own laws and also those of the Federal Govern- ment. State governments are directly involved in the federal legislative process through their representa- tives on the Bundesrat. AT A GLANCE 6 | 7 A STRONG ROLE FOR THE LÄNDER Federalism in Germany is more than just a system of government. It represents the country’s decen- tralised cultural and economic structure and is deeply rooted in tradition. Over and above their political function, the states also reflect their distinct regional iden- tities. This strong position was set out in the Basic Law in 1949. The reunification of Germany in 1990 brought with it the creation of five new states: Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thur- ingia. With 17.9 million inhabit- ants, North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state, while Bavaria is the largest in terms of size, at 70,540 square kilometres. The greatest population density is in the capital, Berlin, with around 4,100 inhabitants per square kilo- metre. The three city states of Berlin, Bremen/Bremerhaven and Hamburg are exceptional in that their territories are limited to their metropolitan areas. Bremen is the smallest state, with 680,000 in- habitants in an area of 420 square kilometres. Saarland was a partly sovereign state and a French pro- tectorate after the Second World War. It was only integrated into the territory of what was then the Fed- eral Republic as the tenth state on 1 January 1957.
ELECTIONS IN GERMANY Free and fair elections are an essential pre- condition for any democracy. The German Basic Law states that representatives must be elected through general, direct, free, equal and secret elections. Amongst other things, this means that all citizens have the right to vote, regardless of their sex or income. They must be able to vote freely and without influence, and every vote counts equally. It must also be guaranteed that every voter can cast their vote alone and without being observed. The German Bundestag is elected every four years. Elections in the 16 states are usually held every five years. There are also municipal elections, such as for city councils. The Federal President is not directly elected by the people, but by the Federal Convention, which consists of members of the Bundestag and rep- resentatives from state parliaments. Postal votes containing ballot papers PEOPLE elect All German citizens aged 18 and over have the right to vote. They elect their representatives in elections that are general, direct, free, equal and secret. elect STATE PARLIAMENTS State parliaments are generally elected for five-year terms. Their powers and organisation are governed by state constitutions. provide members of elect STATE GOVERNMENTS State governments are elected by their respective state parlia- ments by secret ballot, and may be removed by the same mechanism. provide members of
AT A GLANCE 8 | 9 BUNDESTAG elects FEDERAL CHANCELLOR proposes FEDERAL GOVERNMENT The parliament is elected for four years and is made up of 598 representatives. There are also overhang mandates and “equalising” mandates. The Bundes- tag is responsible for legislation and overseeing government. provides members of elects The Federal Chancellor is elected by the Bundestag in a secret ballot. The Chancellor sets policy guidelines and is head of the Federal Cabinet. The Federal Government consists of the Federal Chancellor and federal ministers. Each minister is responsible for their own ministry. appoints appoints FEDERAL PRESIDENT The head of state is primarily a ceremonial role and represents the Federal Republic of Germany abroad. The Federal President ap- points the Federal Chancellor and federal ministers, and issues laws. appoints FEDERAL CONVENTION The Federal Convention only meets to elect the Federal President by secret ballot for a term of five years. elects elects BUNDESRAT FEDERAL CONSTITUTIONAL COURT The Länderkammer (states chamber) consists of 69 repre- sentatives sent by the state governments. Many areas of legislation require the approval of the Bundesrat. elects The Court consists of 16 judges. Half are elected by the Bundestag and Bundesrat each, requiring two-thirds majorities.
POLITICAL SYSTEM The Federal Republic of Germany is organ- ised as a federal and parliamentary democracy. The Basic Law sets down that all state authority derives from the people. The people confer this power to the federal and state parliaments for one legislative period. State authority is divided between the legislative branch, the executive branch and the judicial branch, which is responsible for the administration of justice. The separation of powers is a core component of all democracies and is enshrined in Germany’s con- stitution, the Basic Law. Parliaments belong to the legislative branch, while governments belong to the executive branch. The judicial branch holds a key role as judges in courts at both state and federal levels are independent and make decisions solely based on law. The highest court in Germany is the Federal Consti- tutional Court, which supervises compliance with the Basic Law. All other state authorities are bound by the decisions of the 16 constitutional judges. The Federal President is the highest-ranking rep- resentative of Germany in terms of protocol. The second-highest ranking individual, in terms of pro- tocol, is the President of the Bundestag. The Presi- dent of the Bundesrat acts as deputy to the Federal President. This office is held in rotation for one year by the prime minister of one of the 16 states. The of- fice with the greatest political decision-making pow- er is the Federal Chancellor, who sets guidelines for policy. The President of the Federal Constitutional Court, Germany’s highest court, is another high-rank- ing representative of the state. Dr Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Federal President since March 2017 Olaf Scholz, SPD, Federal Chancellor since December 2021 Bärbel Bas, SPD, President of the Bundestag since October 2021 Professor Stephan Harbarth, President of the Federal Constitutional Court
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AT A GLANCE 10 | 11 The Chancellery was opened in 2001. The Federal Chancellor is the head of the Federal Government. Along with federal ministers, the Chancellor forms the Federal Government – the cabinet. While the Federal Chancellor holds responsi- bility for setting guidelines for policy, the principle of ministerial independence applies, where each minister runs their ministry independently within the frame- work of the policy guidelines. The principle of collect- ive responsibility also applies, according to which the Federal Government decides on disputed issues by ma- jority vote. The Basic Law does not stipulate the num- ber of ministers. Ministers may be replaced during the course of a legislative period. Since the end of 2021, the Federal Cabinet has con- sisted of Federal Chancellor Olaf Scholz, along with 15 ministers and the Head of the Chancellery. The Fed- eral Ministries are the most senior federal authorities in each department. The Federal Chancellor sets the guidelines for policy and bears responsibility for them. The federal capital Berlin is the seat of government. Bonn was the capital before German reunifica- tion in 1990. In June 1991 the Bun- destag decided that Berlin would become the seat of parliament and government. Nevertheless, six federal ministries kept their head- quarters in Bonn, and all ministries have offices in both cities. Bonn, as the second political centre of the Federal Republic, also bears the name of the Federal City of Bonn.
PARLIAMENT AND PARTIES The German Bundestag is elected every four years by all citizens aged 18 and over who have the right to vote, in free, secret and direct elections. The Bundes- tag is the parliament. There are at least 598 seats in the Bundestag. Of these, half are elected through first votes cast for individuals in 299 constituencies. The rest of the seats are allocated according to second votes from parties' state lists. The electoral system makes it diffi- cult for individual parties to form a government on their own. As such, coalition governments are the rule in Germany. Parties must achieve at least five per cent of the vote (the five per cent hurdle) in order to be rep- resented in the Bundestag. This is to avoid complicat- ing the formation of majorities through the presence of too many smaller parties. Political parties occupy a prominent position in Ger- many. They help shape the political decision-making process and are indispensable for democratic elections. For this reason, the Basic Law acknowledges their con- stitutional status. If a party seeks to eliminate the free democratic basic order of the Federal Republic, the Federal Constitutional Court may ban that party. How- ever, the barriers to this are very high. The 20th German Bundestag is made up of 736 rep- resentatives of 7 parties: SPD, CDU, CSU, Alliance 90/ The Greens, FDP, AfD and The Left. Since the first Bun- destag elections in 1949, the CDU have formed a joint party with their sister party the CSU, which only stands for election in Bavaria. The present Federal Government is formed of a co- alition of the SPD, Greens and FDP. Olaf Scholz (SPD) is Federal Chancellor, Robert Habeck (Greens) is Vice Chancellor and Annalena Baerbock (Greens) is Federal Foreign Minister. FDP leader Christian Lindner is the Federal Finance Minister. The CDU, CSU, The Left and AfD form the opposition in parliament. PARTIES Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 2021 election result: 25.7% Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU) 2021 election result: 18.9% Alliance 90/The Greens 2021 election result: 14.8% Free Democratic Party (FDP) 2021 election result: 11.5% Alternative for Germany (AfD) 2021 election result: 10.3 % Christian Social Union (CSU) 2021 election result: 5.2% The Left 2021 election result: 4.9 %
AT A GLANCE 12 | 13 BUNDESTAG The Bundestag has at least 598 members. In addition, there are usually so-called “overhang” and “equalisation mandates”. The 20th Bundestag, which was elected in 2021, is made up of 736 representatives. Independent 5 seats 736 seats AfD 79 seats FDP 92 seats The Left 39 seats SPD 206 seats CDU 152 seats CSU 45 seats Alliance 90/The Greens 118 seats BUNDESRAT The Bundesrat is one of five permanent constitutional bodies. It represents the states. The Bundesrat comprises 69 representatives of the state govern- ments. Each state has at least three votes, with the most populous states having up to six votes. Baden-Wurttemberg 6 4 Thuringia Bavaria 6 Berlin 4 Brandenburg 4 Bremen 3 Hamburg 3 4 Schleswig-Holstein 4 Saxony-Anhalt 4 Saxony 3 Saarland 4 Rhineland-Palatinate Hesse 5 3 Mecklenburg-West Pomerania 6 North Rhine-Westphalia 6 Lower Saxony
FEDERAL PRESIDENTS AND FEDERAL CHANCELLORS S R O L L E C N A H C L A R E D E F Ludwig Erhard (CDU) 1963–1966 Willy Brandt (SPD) 1969–1974 Konrad Adenauer (CDU) 1949–1963 Kurt Georg Kiesinger (CDU) 1966–1969 Helmut Schmidt (SPD) 1974–1982 9 4 9 1 0 5 9 1 5 5 9 1 0 6 9 1 5 6 9 1 0 7 9 1 5 7 9 1 0 8 9 1 5 8 9 1 Theodor Heuss (FDP) 1949–1959 Heinrich Lübke (CDU) 1959–1969 Walter Scheel (FDP) 1974–1979 S T N E D I S E R P L A R E D E F Gustav Heinemann (SPD) 1969–1974 Karl Carstens (CDU) 1979–1984
AT A GLANCE 14 | 15 Olaf Scholz (SPD) since 2021 Helmut Kohl (CDU) 1982–1998 Gerhard Schröder (SPD) 1998–2005 Angela Merkel (CDU) 2005–2021 0 9 9 1 5 9 9 1 0 0 0 2 5 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 5 1 0 2 0 2 0 2 Richard von Weizsäcker (CDU) 1984–1994 Johannes Rau (SPD) 1999–2004 Christian Wulff (CDU) 2010–2012 Frank-Walter Steinmeier (SPD) since 2017 Roman Herzog (CDU) 1994–1999 Horst Köhler Joachim Gauck (CDU) 2004–2010 (no party) 2012–2017
FEDERAL EAGLE BASIC LAW Of all the symbols of the German state, the Fed- eral Eagle is the oldest and is most steeped in tradition. The Federal President, Bundesrat, Federal Constitutional Court and Bundestag each use differently styled eagles. Coins and the national strips of German sports teams also dis- play different eagles. The Basic Law adopted in Bonn in 1949 was ini- tially only considered a provisional measure. However, after reunification in 1990, it was adopted as the permanent constitution. The 146 articles of the Basic Law are supreme over all other German laws and define the fundamental systems and values of the state. FLAG NATIONAL HOLIDAY 3 OCTOBER According to the Basic Law, the colours of the flag of the Federal Republic must be black, red and gold. This decision made in 1949 created a link with the flag of the first German Republic of 1919. That flag had been abolished by the Nazis, who replaced it with the swastika. The Unification Treaty of 1990 declared 3 Octo- ber a national holiday as the Day of German Unity. The Day of German Unity is the only na- tional holiday determined by federal law. CURRENCY DOMAIN SUFFIX € .de +49 The euro has been the sole form of legal tender in Germany since 1 January 2002, when it re- placed the deutschmark, which had been in use since 1948. The European Central Bank (ECB) has its headquarters in Frankfurt am Main, Ger- many’s financial centre. The .de domain suffix is the most popular suffix in Germany and the most popular country-spe- cific suffix in the world. Germany’s +49 inter- national dialling code allows callers to reach 99.9% of households via landline or mobile.
AT A GLANCE 16 | 17 NATIONAL ANTHEM Germany’s national anthem consists of the third verse of the “Deutschland- lied”, written in 1841 by August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben. Joseph Haydn composed the melody of the anthem in 1796/1797. Ei – nig – keit und Recht und Frei – heit Da – nach lasst uns al – le stre – ben für das deut – sche Va – ter – land! brü – der – lich mit Herz und Hand! Ei – nig – keit und Recht und Frei – heit sind des Glü – ckes Un – ter – pfand. Blüh im Glan – ze die – ses Glü – ckes, blü – he, deut – sches Va – ter – land!
opment and social care system, is mitigated by although this Just under 27% immigration. of people in Germany (22.3 million) come from mi- grant backgrounds. Over half of them hold German pass- ports. Members of four national minorities are recognised as “long-established” and are af- forded special protection. These are the Danish minorty (50,000 people) and the Frisians (60,000) in North Germany, the Lu- the satian Sorbs German/Polish and the German Sinti and Roma (70,000). (60,000) on living border P O P U L AT I O N There are three significant trends in Germany's demographics: a low birthrate, rising life expectancy and an ageing society. Germany re- corded its highest birthrate in 1964, when 1.36 mil- lion children were born, but since then the birth rate has slumped. Following a brief rise between 2014 and 2016, the birth rate fell for four years in succession up to 2020. Germany’s birth rate of 1.53 children per woman puts it in line with the EU average. Never- theless, for 35 years each generation of children has been smaller than their parents’ generation, and the group of 50-year-olds is now twice as large as the group of newborns. At the same time, life expectancy is increasing. The average for men is 79 years and 83 for women. Germany’s demographic transition has serious consequences for the country’s economic devel- Over 83 million people live in Germany.
AT A GLANCE 18 | 19 GENDER DISTRIBUTION LIFE EXPECTANCY 42 million 41 million 83 years 79 years Women Men Women Men HOUSEHOLDS 40.7 million AGE DISTRIBUTION 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 400 300 Women 200 100 0 0 Age in years 100 200 400 300 Men e c fi f O l a c i t s i t a t S l a r e d e F : e c r u o S 600 700 thousand persons 500 500 600 700 thousand persons
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE Germany is in the centre of Europe. It shares borders with nine countries. No other country in Europe has more neighbours. To the north, Germany has access to the Baltic and the North Sea. Its southern border is in the Alps. The highest elevation is the Zug- spitze mountain in Bavaria, at 2,962m above sea level. The lowest point in the country stands 3.54m above sea level in Neuendorf-Sachsenbande in the state of Schleswig Holstein. Covering 357,588 square kilo- metres, Germany is the fourth-largest country in the European Union, after France, Spain and Sweden. Just under a third of the total land area is covered with forest. Lakes, rivers and other watercourses make up over 2% of its area. The Rhine is the longest river. In the south-west of the country, it forms the border between Germany and France. Further to the north, Bonn, Cologne and Düsseldorf stand on its banks. Germany’s second-longest river, the Elbe, connects Dresden, Magdeburg and Hamburg before flowing into the North Sea. LOCATION Central Europe AREA 357,588 km2 HIGHEST MOUNTAIN Zugspitze 2,962m CAPITAL Berlin 891.70km2
AT A GLANCE 20 | 21 HOURS OF SUNSHINE 2021 1,650 RAINFALL 2021 805l/m2 COASTLINE 2,442km LONGEST RIVER Rhine 865km in Germany FORESTED AREA 106,699km2 Germany enjoys a temperate climate. The average temperatures in 2021 were 18.3°C in July and 0.6°C in January. Recent winters in Germany proved particularly mild while the summers were unusually hot. With an average temperature of 10.5°, 2018 was the warmest since regular records began in 1881. The second warmest year was in 2020. The highest temperatures recorded were over 40°.
Government and politics P O L I T IC A L A L IG N M E N T O F T H E F E D E R A L G OV E R N M E N T Olaf Scholz has been Federal Chancellor since the end of 2021. Under his leadership, the goals of the Federal Government coalition of the SPD, Alliance 90/The Greens and the FDP include transforming Germany into a climate-neutral industrial nation. A summary. S T RU C T U R E O F T H E F E D E R A L R E P U B L IC Federalism is a defining feature of Germany. The 16 states are distinctive for their high degree of autonomy, but they also contribute to major fed- eral policy decisions. The Federal Constitutional Court plays a key role in the structure of the state, acting as the “Guardian of the Basic Law”. DI V E R S E PA RT IC I PAT IO N The political parties are of vital importance when it comes to participation by citizens. At the same time, there are many other opportunities for people to contribute, such as in referendums or by serv- ing on local councils. AC T I V E C U LT U R E O F R E M E M B R A N C E Many memorials play a part in keeping the memory alive in Germa- ny of the atrocities and crimes committed by the Nazis. There are also memorials to the injustice of the system imposed by the German Democratic Republic of former East Germany.
The Basic Law consists of 146 articles. – The basic rights enshrined in articles 1 to 19 may not be infringed. G O V E R N M E N T A N D P O L I T I C S 7 Facts Olaf Scholz is the9th FEDERAL CHANCELLOR of the Federal Republic of Germany. Elections to the German Bundestag are usually held every 4 years. There are 6 PARLIAMENTARY GROUPS in the 20th Bundestag. – The Federal Government is formed by the SPD, FDP and Alliance 90/The Greens. In the September 2021 parliamentary elections VOTER TURNOUT WAS 76.6%. Frank-Walter Steinmeier is the 12th Federal President. As the “Parliament of State Governments”, the Bundesrat has 69 members.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 24 | 25 Political Alignment of the Federal Government Since late 2021, Germany has been governed by a coalition of the SPD, Alliance 90/The Greens and the FDP, headed by Federal Chancellor Olaf Scholz. The next Bundestag elections are scheduled for 2025. Lindner of the FDP is the Fed eral Finance Minister. The Federal Cabinet consists of 15 ministers and the Head of the Chancellery. On 8 December 2021, the SPD politician Olaf Scholz was elected by the German Bundestag to serve as the 9th Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany. He succeeded Angela Merkel of the CDU, who had governed Germany for 16 years. The government that has held office since then is formed of three parties: the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), Alli- ance 90/The Greens, and the Free Democratic Par- ty (FDP). Robert Habeck is Vice Chancellor and also serves as Minister for Economic Affairs and Climate Action. Annalena Baerbock is the Foreign Minister. Habeck and Baerbock are both members of the Alli- ance 90/The Greens parliamentary group. Christian Federal Chancellor Olaf Scholz Following the Bundestag election of 26 September 2021, the three governing parties hold 416 out of the 736 seats in the German Bundestag. The opposition in the Bundestag is formed by the Chris- tian Democratic Union (CDU) and the Christian Social Union (CSU), which join forces as the Union, along with The Left and the Alter- native for Germany (AfD). A three- way coalition of the SPD, Alliance 90/The Greens and the FDP is a first for Germany, as previous gov- ernments had almost always been two-party alliances. The Union and the SPD formed the govern- ment until the handover of power in 2021. COALITION AGREEMENT PRIORITIES The coalition agreement forms the basis for how the governing parties work together. The SPD, Alliance 90/The Greens and the FDP signed the agreement before electing Scholz as Federal Chan-
Federal Foreign Minister Baerbock, Federal Minister for Economic Affairs Habeck, Federal Chancellor Scholz, Finance Minister Lindner cellor. Under the headline “Daring to make progress – alliance for freedom, justice and sustainability”, the agreement outlines the key priorities for the Federal Government in the four years of this parliamentary legislative period. The next Bundestag elections are scheduled for Autumn 2025. MAKING GERMANY A CLIMATE-NEUTRAL INDUSTRIAL COUNTRY BY 2045 One key policy area for the Federal Government con- cerns transforming Germany’s industry and econ- omy to make the country climate-neutral by 2045. In his first government statement, Federal Chancel- lor Scholz described the “greatest transformation of our industry and economy for at least 100 years.” Specifically the govern- ment is undertaking a swift and comprehensive energy transfor- mation. According to the coali- tion agreement, 80% of Germany’s electricity will come from renew- able sources by 2030. The government has also iden- tified a need for substantial ac-
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 26 | 27 tion given the challenges posed by globalisation and digitalisation. At the same time, Scholz promised that, “We will create new confidence through this transfor- mation and will ensure security during this transfor- mation.” The Federal Government's commitments include raising Germany’s legal minimum wage to 12 euros. It also pledged to provide guaranteed train- ing places for young people and stable pensions. In order to protect Germany’s strength as an innovator, over three 3% of GDP is directed to research and de- velopment each year. The aim is for this to rise to at least 3.5% of all state expenditure by 2025. Germany intends to make itself even more attractive for skilled professionals from abroad. One element of this is de- veloping modern immigration laws. to create The Federal Government also plans Germany’s first-ever comprehensive National Secur- ity Strategy. Its priorities will include protection from violence and war and promoting the resilience of democracy. The Federal Foreign Office has initiated consultations with civil society groups on how the strategy will be initiated. A TRUSTED PARTNER AROUND THE WORLD Germany’s tradition of close cooperation with its part- ners around the world forms the basis of the Federal Government’s foreign policy. According to the coali- tion agreement, “the only way to overcome the great challenges of our age is through international coop- eration and as a partner within a strong European Union.” “A commitment to peace, freedom, human rights, democracy, the rule of law, and sustainability is for us an essential element of a successful and credible foreign policy.” “Germany must be cli- mate-neutral by 2045. That means we are faced with the greatest transformation of our industry and economy for at least 100 years.” Federal Chancellor Olaf Scholz
Structure of the Federal Republic Germany is a parliamentary and federal democracy. Of all Germany’s constitutional bodies, the German Bundestag is most prominent in public conscious- ness. It is directly elected every four years by citizens with the right to vote. The Bundestag’s most import- ant duties are passing legislation and overseeing the work of the government. The Bundestag holds a se- cret ballot to elect the Federal Chancellor for the dur- ation of each legislative period. Within the Federal Government, the Federal Chancellor has authority over policy guidelines, setting the broad outlines of policy that ministers must follow. The Federal Chan- cellor appoints federal ministers and selects a Vice Chancellor from their ranks. In practice, however, the various governing parties decide which individuals run the ministries as- signed to their party as a result of the coalition negotiations. If a coalition collapses, the Federal Chancellor may be deposed before the end of a four-year term, as the Bundestag has the right to vote the head of government out of office at any time. In such cases, however, the parliament must name a suc- cessor at the same time by passing what is known as a “constructive vote of no confidence”. This makes it impossible for there to be any periods of time without an elected government in office. COALITION GOVERNMENTS ARE THE NORM IN GERMANY The system of personalised propor- tional representation has a decisive
The German Bundestag has its seat in the Reichstag Building in Berlin. Eligible citizens voted to elect the 20th German Bundestag in September 2021. Bundestag elections are usually held every four years. effect on the character of Germa- ny’s parliament. It means that even smaller parties are represented in the Bundestag in proportion to their share of the vote. With one ex- ception, Federal Governments have been formed of alli ances of sever- al parties that competed against each other in the election. In most cases, these alliances were two-party coalitions. Three parties have formed the government since the end of 2021: the SPD, the Greens and the FDP. The government is headed by Olaf Scholz, a Social Democrat, who is the ninth Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic since 1949. He replaced Federal Chancellor Ange- la Merkel of the CDU. All of Ger- many’s previous chancellors were members of either the SDP or CDU. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 28 | 29 In order to prevent fragmentation in parliament and to make it easier to form a government, parties must achieve at least 5% of all votes cast (or achieve 3 direct mandates) in order to be represented in the Bundes- tag. This is known as the 5% threshold. There are six parties in the 20th German Bundestag, with the Chris- tian Democratic Union (CDU) and the Christian Social Union (CSU), which only stands in Bavaria, uniting as a single grouping. Germany’s federal character is evident from the high degree of autonomy enjoyed by the 16 states, particu- larly on matters of policing, disaster protection, the judiciary, education and culture. For historical rea- sons, the cities of Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg are also states in their own right. The close link between the states and central government is unique, as it gives state governments a range of opportunities to play an active role in shaping policy at a federal level. COALITIONS IN THE BUNDESRAT – A WIDE DIVERSITY The main forum for this contribution is the Bundesrat, Germany’s second chamber. It is formed of members of state governments and has its seat in Berlin. The federal states with larger populations have more rep- resentatives in the Bundesrat than smaller states. It also allows parties that have no seats in the Bundestag (or are among the opposition) to influence federal pol- icy through their representation in state parliaments, as many federal laws and decrees require assent from the Bundesrat. As there is no uniform timetable of elections for state governments and the parliamentary terms are of vary- ing lengths, the balance of power within the Bundesrat can change several times during a single Bundestag.
It is increasingly rare for there to be clearly defined po- litical blocks that vote in a consistent way within the Bundesrat, as there has been a wide diversity of coali- tions in the 16 states in recent years. With the excep- tion of the AfD, all parties in the 20th German Bun- destag were represented in the government of at least one state in 2022. The state premiers of Baden-Wurt- temberg and Thuringia are from the Green party and The Left respectively. THE FEDERAL PRESIDENT IS THE MOST SENIOR POLITICAL FIGURE IN THE COUNTRY In terms of protocol, the Federal President is invested with the highest office. The president is not elected by the people but by a federal assembly especially con- vened for the purpose. Half of the assembly is made up of members of the Bundestag. The other half is elected by state parliaments in proportion to the distribution of seats there. The Federal President holds office for five years and may be re-elected for one further term. Frank-Walter Steinmeier has been Federal President since 2017. He was re-elected with a large majority in 2022 at the end of his first term in office. As a mem- ber of the SPD, he served as Federal Foreign Minister from 2005 to 2009 and 2013 to 2017. Steinmeier is the twelfth Federal President since 1949. Although the duties of the Fed- eral President are primarily repre- sentative in nature, he or she may refuse to sign laws if they doubt their constitutionality. However, the most significant way for the Federal President to influence is through public speeches, which attract attention. Federal Presidents refrain from getting involved in party politics and instead address pressing issues considerable M I L E S TO N E S 1949 On 23 May, the Par- liamentary Council in Bonn, which was made up of representatives of the western occupation zones, formally adopts the Basic Law. Elections for the 1st Bundestag are held on 14 August. 1961 The government of the GDR in East Germany closed crossing points between East and West Germany with a wall and barbed wire. Those attempting to flee are shot. The possibility of a united German state seems unachievable for the foreseeable future. 1989/1990 Peaceful protests in East Germany lead to the collapse of the regime. The border with the West is opened on 9 November. After its first peaceful elections on 18 March, the GDR accedes to the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 30 | 31 and its authoritative decisions provide a binding inter- pretation of the text of the constitution. The Court is formed of two senates and adjudicates where consti- tutional bodies are in dispute over competency. It may also declare laws to be incompatible with the Basic Law. All citizens may appeal to the Federal Constitu- tional Court if they believe a law violates their basic rights. and occasionally urge the govern- ment, parliament or the people to take action. Some speeches come to be regarded as historic events, such as the speech given by the then Federal President Richard von Weizsäcker in 1985, when he described 08 May 1945 as a “day of liberation”. The current President used his speeches and televised addresses to speak directly to the people during the Covid-19 pan- demic, for example. THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTIONAL COURT IN KARLSRUHE The Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe exercises considera- ble influence, and is held in high esteem by the public. It is regarded as the “Guardian of the Basic Law” The Federal Constitutional Court sits in Karlsruhe. 1999 The Bundestag and Fed- eral Government relocate to Berlin. The parliament buildings stand on either side of the former Berlin Wall. Some ministries and federal authorities retain their headquarters in Bonn. 2005 Angela Merkel becomes the first female Federal Chancellor of Germany on 22 November. She is also the first East German in this office, which she holds for 16 years until a new government takes over in 2021. 2021 For the first time, the SPD, FDP and Alliance 90/The Greens form the government. The government is headed by the ninth Federal Chancellor of Germany, Olaf Scholz, a Social Democrat.
Elections and parliaments: facts and figures AG E DI S T R I B U T IO N O F E L IG I B L E VOT E R S Germany’s demographic changes are evident in the electorate, where the proportion of older voters has increased substantially within 50 years. 1972 18–29 20% 2021 18–29 14% 60+ 28% 30–59 52% 60+ 39% 30–59 47% Source: Federal Returning Officer WO M E N I N T H E B U N D E S TAG 256 women were elected to the Bundestag in 2021, 38 more than in the 2017 elections.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 32 | 33 47.3 11% 23 Average age of members of the Bundestag after the 2021 elections. of members of the Bundestag come from migrant backgrounds. The age of the youngest member of the Bundestag in 2021. “Getting involved and playing your part are the lifeblood of democracy. Anyone who gets involved gets listened to. If you don’t vote, you’re letting others make decisions for you.” F E D E R A L P R E S I D E N T F R A N K-WA LT E R S T E I N M E I E R, S P E A K I N G B E F O R E T H E 2021 B U N D E S TAG E L EC T IO N. T U R N O U T F O R B U N D E S TAG E L EC T IO N S Turnout for Bundestag elections has dropped slightly in recent years. The highest turnout was for the 1972 election. 91.1% 78.5% 77.8% 71.5% 76.2% 76.6% 1949 1972 1990 2013 2017 2021 Source: Federal Returning Officer
E L IG I B L E VOT E R S 61.2 million Germans were eligible to vote in the Bundes- tag elections on 26 September 2021. Around 46.9 million people cast their votes, repre- senting a turnout of 76.6%.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 34 | 35 Diverse participation Germany’s political system acknowledges the cru- cial and privileged position within the Federal Re- public. Article 21 of the Basic Law states that they “participate in the formation of the political will of the people.” This is accompanied by an obligation to uphold their own internal democracy. Committees, chairpersons and candidates are elected in secret ballots by delegates of the party membership at par- ty conferences. More recently, parties have direct- ly polled their members on significant decisions as a means of reinforcing their internal democratic processes. more attractive for young people. Social media is becoming increas- ingly significant as a platform for citizens to articulate political views and take action. Voters can also participate in the political process through democratic processes such as referendums. Opportunities for direct democracy are increasing- ly offered at state and municipal levels, and citizens are making great use of these. While the parties remain essentially a form of so- cial expression, at the same time they are losing co- herence. The CDU/CSU and SPD each have around a million party members, which corresponds to around 1.6% of the 61 million eligible voters. The trend in voter turnout is also in decline. While turn- out for elections in the 1970s and 1980s remained high and reached its peak (91.1% in 1972), the 2017 and 2021 Bundestag elections achieved 76.2% and 76.6% respectively. The greatest increase in turnout by some distance in 2021, was the 3.9% rise in voters aged 21–29. However, opportunities to participate through civil society ini- tiatives and non-governmental organisations are often “Citizens’ councils” are also grow- ing in importance as a means of involving members of the public in decision-making processes. These councils are generally con- cerned with specific concrete issues where they make recom- mendations to political leaders. Governments and parties are also looking for ways to engage with the people. For example, Federal Foreign Minister Annalena Baer- bock has initiated citizens consul- tations as part of drawing up the first National Security Strategy. Federal Foreign Minister Baerbock in conversation with members of the public
Active culture of remembrance Many memorials play a part in keeping the mem ory alive in Germany of the crimes committed by the Na- zis. Two important elements of Germany’s culture of remembrance are commemorating the victims of per- secution, while engaging with issues of war, tyranny, ideologically motivated crime and 20th century polit- ical injustice. Preserving eyewitness accounts is a par- ticularly significant way of ensuring that generations now and in future remain aware of the crimes com- mitted by the Nazis. MAJOR PLACES OF REMEMBRANCE The many memorials and sites of remembrance play a major role in Germany’s active culture of remembrance. One such is the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of S TO L P E R S T E I N E (S T U M B L I N G B LO C KS) In many European cities, “Stolpersteine” (stumbling blocks) have been set into the pavement as reminders to passers-by of places where people lived who were perse- cuted deported or displaced by the Nazis. Brass plaques on the tops of the cube-shaped blocks of concrete, roughly 10x10 centi- metres in size, bear inscriptions in memory of victims along with their date of birth and death. These stolpersteine have been placed in over 1,200 towns, cities and villages across Germany. Europe in the very centre of Berlin, which commemorates the six mil- lion Jewish victims of the Holocaust. The act of commemorating dic- tatorship and war is often close- ly linked to reconstruction and German unification. For example, in May 2020 Germany marked 75 years since the end of the Second World War and hence the end of the Nazi dictatorship, and in Octo- ber of the same year celebrated 30 years of German unification. Just under a year later in August 2021, Germany the construction of the Berlin Wall 60 years previously. commemorated During the anniversary years of 2014 and 2015, which marked 100 years since the beginning of the First World War and the 25th anni- versary of the Fall of the Berlin Wall, the commemorations were marked above all by a sense of gratitude. It acknowledged the debt owed to the Allied coalition for liberating Germany in 1945 and also the op- portunity for reconstruction and reunification in 1990. There was also gratitude to those Holocaust sur vivors who bore witness to the crimes and were willing to be rec- onciled with democratic Germany after the Second World War. The German Resistance Centre in the “Bendlerblock” in Berlin’s commemorates Mitte district
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 36 | 37 A stolperstein: a visible reminder of the Jews murdered by the Nazis those who opposed Nazi dicta- torship. It stands on the historic site of the failed coup attempt undertaken by a group led by Graf Stauffenberg on 20 July 1944. The Centre documents how individ- uals and groups took action against the Nazi dictatorship, making use of what freedom of action they had between 1933 and 1945. THE INJUSTICE OF THE EAST GERMAN SYSTEM Germany also intends to keep the memory alive of the communist dictatorship during the periods of the Soviet occupa- tion zone (1945–1949) and the German Democratic Republic in East Germany (1949–1990) for those gen- erations who did not experience a divided Germany and the GDR system. The office of the Federal Com- missioner for the Records of the State Security Ser- vice (Stasi) of the GDR began examining and sorting Stasi files, and making them accessible to academics and researchers. In mid-2021 responsibility for the documents was transferred to the Federal Archives. A permanent exhibition in the former Stasi head- quarters in Berlin’s Lichtenberg district presents an insight into the methods and techniques used by the Stasi to spy on, control and intimidate the population.
Partners in Europe and around the world S H A R E D R E S P O N S I BI L I T Y Multilateral collaboration is a hallmark of German foreign policy. Its for- eign policy is shaped by working jointly through the European Union as well as its transatlantic alliance with the USA. But Germany is also part of a close-knit network that extends much further. A summary. A DVO C AT E F O R E U RO P E A N I N T EG R AT IO N Germany is one of the six founder members of the European Union. The friendship between Germany and France is considered a driving force behind the process of European integration. CO M M I T M E N T TO P E AC E A N D S EC U R I T Y Germany shoulders responsibility around the world as part of UN and NATO missions. Civilian methods are always the priority. The Federal Government is also active in promoting disarmament and arms control. U P H O L DI N G H U M A N R IG H T S Germany plays an active role around the world in protecting and developing human rights through the United Nations and the Council of Europe. P RO M OT I N G S U S TA I N A B L E D E V E LO P M E N T Germany’s development policy is guided by the United Nations’ 17 sustainable development goals. Global food security is a particular priority.
101 volunteers receive their letters of appointment on 12 November 1955. – This day marks the foundation of the Bundeswehr. Of the 705 seats in the European Parliament, 96 are held by REPRESENTATIVES from Germany. PARTNERS IN EUROPE AND AROUND THE WORLD 7 Facts Germany maintains 226 diplomatic missions around the world. The ÉLYSÉE TREATY signed in 1963 is a milestone in the Franco-German friendship and the process of European integration. The 17 GOALS for sustainable development set by Agenda 2030 are guidelines for German development policy. Germany is the second-largest donor of humanitarian aid in the world. Around 30 UN ORGANISATIONS are headquartered in Germany.
PARTNERS IN EUROPE AND AROUND THE WORLD 40 | 41 Shared responsibility International cooperation is the foundation of German foreign policy. It works with partners in Europe and around the world to stand up for free- dom, democracy and human rights. As the fourth-largest economy in the world and the largest member of the European union, Ger many is well aware of its international responsibilities. Through its foreign, security and defence policy, the Federal Government aims to work closely with demo cratic partners in order to defend shared values and counter global challenges such as climate change and the Covid-19 pandemic. A key pillar of this is the EU as a project to promote peace and freedom, where Germany plays an active role in shaping the Union’s future. Germany has close ties with France through their historic partnership. This mu- tual friendship and cooperation is considered a driving force behind the European Union. The “Weimar Triangle” serves as an important forum for Germany’s cooperation with France and Poland. Germany is also rooted in the shared values that underpin the transatlantic al- liance with the USA. Germany is also part of an active and diverse network in wider international politics. It maintains diplomatic relations with almost 200 countries and is a member of a range of multinational organisa- tions and informal coordination Federal Foreign Minister Annalena Baerbock at an EU summit in Brussels
Federal Chancellor Olaf Scholz meets US President Joe Biden at the G7 Summit in Germany in 2022 groups such as the Group of Seven (G7). Annalena Baerbock (Alliance 90/The Greens) has been Fed- eral Foreign Minister since December 2021. Around 12,000 people work for the Foreign Service, which has its headquarters in Berlin. Germany maintains 226 diplomatic missions. The overarching goal of German foreign policy is to maintain peace and security around the world. One of its guiding principles is comprehensive integration into the structures of multilateral cooperation. In concrete terms, this means developing construct- ive partnerships with EU member states and transatlantic partners, supporting Israel’s right to exist, making an active and committed contribution to the UN and the Council of Europe, and strength- ening European security archi-
PARTNERS IN EUROPE AND AROUND THE WORLD 42 | 43 tecture through the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). UPHOLDING HUMAN RIGHTS Human rights are the founda- tion of German foreign policy. Article 1 of the Basic Law states that “Human dignity shall be inviolable”. Germany therefore works with partners around the world to achieve this. This is not just a moral obligation, it is also in Germany’s foreign policy interests, as preserving human rights contributes to peace and stable development. Germany champions a broad view of security that encompasses sus- tainable economic, environmen- tal and social issues alongside crisis prevention, disarmament and arms control. It includes pro- moting globalisation with oppor- tunities for all, cross-border envir- onmental and climate protection, intercultural dialogue, as well as encouraging hospitality to visit- ors and immigrants. This holistic approach also includes the Fed- eral Government's pledge to make feminist foreign policy a reality. This focuses on strengthening the rights, resources and representa- tion of women and marginalised groups, as well as promoting diversity. As part of multilateral organisations and relation- ships, Germany has shouldered the increased respon- sibility that has fallen to it since reunification in 1990. Through wide-ranging and ever-increasing efforts, Germany now contributes to stabilising crisis regions and finding political solutions to conflicts. It also helps maintain peacekeeping structures, as well as playing a role in crisis management by contributing personnel to UN peace missions. Germany also provides humanitarian aid to crises, conflicts and natural disasters to help people in acute distress. Germany also works with UN organ- isations, the Red Cross and Red Crescent organisa- tions, and NGOs. Germany aligns its development activities with the sustainable development goals set down in the United Nations’ Agenda 2030. The 17 goals include combating hunger and poverty, promoting climate protection and achieving gender equality. GERMANY’S G7 PRESIDENCY 2022 In 2022 the Federal Republic took its seventh turn as leader of the G7, the group of seven leading industrial nations and democracies. In partnership with France, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada and the USA, Germany faced up to its responsibilities during its presidency. The Federal Government chose set it- self the goal of “Progress for a just world” in its pro- gramme. The priorities included future global alliances and structures, climate protection, global health, social justice and equality.
Advocate for European integration No other country in Europe has as many neighbours as Germany. Germany shares borders with nine coun- tries, eight of which are members of the EU. For Ger- many, European integration forms the basis for peace, security and prosperity. Despite the UK’s exit from the EU at the end of 2020, it remains a key task for German foreign policy to further develop and strengthen the Union, even under complex and often highly fraught conditions. The EU is a historic project that began in the early 1950s and now encompasses around 450 million citi- zens across 27 member states. Germany’s European E U RO P E A N PA R L I A M E N T The European Parliament celebrated its 70th birthday in 2022. The first meeting of the “Common Assembly” of the European Coal and Steel Community took place in Stras- bourg on 10 September 1952, which is re- garded as the moment when the parliament was born. European elections have been held every 5 years since 1979. Around 450 million Europeans from 27 countries have a direct say in the allocation of seats in the European Parliament. There are 705 MEPs in total, of which 96 come from Germany. policy has established itself as a driving force at every stage of European integration, playing an active role in shaping in European integration. Ursula von der Leyen’s appointment as President of the European Commission in Decem- ber 2019 saw a German at the head of the community. Along with France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, Germany is one of the six founder members of the EU which conclud- ed the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957. The signing of this treaty is regarded as the moment the Euro- pean Union was born. Officially, at that point the Treaty established the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic En- ergy Community (Euratom). EUROPEAN COMMON MARKET European integration has creat- ed the world’s largest common market. It is unique thanks to the four fundamental freedoms stated in the Treaties of Rome: the free movement of goods within EU member states, the free movement of persons, the freedom to provide services within the EU and the free flow of capital. The scale and economic output of the European common market make the EU a key player in the global economy. The European internal market is of vital importance to Germany’s
PARTNERS IN EUROPE AND AROUND THE WORLD 44 | 45 Widespread support for Europe: the EU enjoys strong backing among the public. economy, as European countries are some of Germany’s most im- portant trading partners. As the EU’s strongest economy, Germany bears a particular re- sponsibility, particularly during periods of economic and social transition. This was evident during the Global Financial Crisis. Euro member states set up the Euro- pean Stability Mechanism (ESM) as an emergency fund. EU states also showed solidarity during the Covid-19 pandemic, agreeing on a reconstruction package worth billions of euros. The “NextGenerationEU” plan was based on a Franco-German initiative. FRANCO-GERMAN FRIENDSHIP – A DRIVING FORCE France is Germany’s key partner in Europe. In paral- lel to European integration, the two countries forged a partnership after the Second World War which today is often considered a model for reconciliation between two nations. The two countries were both among the six founder members of the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957, the core of the modern EU. The Franco-German friendship was sealed by the 1963 Élysée Treaty and is sustained by close relationships between civil society organisations and many Fran- co-German institutions.
Signed in January 2019, the Aachen Treaty follows on from the Élysée Treaty and realigns Franco-German re- lations to face future challenges. The measures agreed in the treaty include working closely together in part- nership with other EU states to develop the European Union, and to increase ongoing efforts to promote the aspects of life which German and French people have in common. CLOSE COOPERATION IN THE WEIMAR TRIANGLE The Weimar Triangle consists of Germany, France and Poland. It was first established in 1991 by the then foreign ministers of the three countries. Its name refers to the fact the three ministers met in Weimar on Goethe’s birthday. In a joint declaration, the three ministers emphasised the significant re- sponsibility that Germany, France and Poland bear for the process of European integration. Poland was admitted to the European Union in 2004 along with nine other states in central and eastern Europe. PARTNER FOR EU EXPANSION Germany is supporting the inte- gration of more members into the EU. The Union has been expanded many times in recent decades. The eastward enlargement of the EU in 2004 was also particularly signifi- cant in Germany. The United King- dom’s departure at the end of 2020 marked the first time a member state had left the EU. Despite this, Germany is prioritising close rela- tions with the UK and sees itself as bearing a particular responsibility for shaping the UK’s future rela- tionship with the EU. M I L E S TO N E S 1957 The process of Euro- pean integration begins. With the signing of the Treaties of Rome, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands establish the European Economic Community (EEC). 1979 Members of the public are invited to vote in European elections. This is the first time that Members of the European Parliament have been directly elected. They had previously been delegated by national parliaments. 1993 Visible signs of European integration at the borders: in Schengen in Luxembourg, Germany, France and the Benelux countries agree to end border controls between the states. Other countries join the agreement later.
PARTNERS IN EUROPE AND AROUND THE WORLD 46 | 47 PROMOTING JOINT EUROPEAN ACTION Germany works closely with its European partners across all pol- icy areas. One of the EU’s core tasks is to find shared responses to the climate crises. In late 2019, the European Commission pre- sented its “European Green Deal”. The aim is to make Europe the first climate-neutral continent by 2050. Germany is committed to actively promoting efforts to achieve this goal and become climate neutral as early as 2045. The Federal Government is also promoting the development of the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). The Policy encompasses roles ranging from crisis prevention to conflict manage- ment and post-conflict stabilisation. During its ten- ure of the EU Council presidency, Germany initiated what is known as the “Strategic Compass” in 2020. It is aimed at setting a clear course for common policies. The foundation of Germany’s European policy is its awareness of the historical significance of the Euro- pean Union as a peace project. In 2012 the Union was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. At the time, the Nobel Committee said that the EU had transformed “Europe from a continent of war to a continent of peace.” For the Federal Government, this duty is of fundamental importance, as Federal Chancellor Olaf Scholz stressed in 2022: “This core mission of the European Union, the preservation of peace within Europe is as important now as it has ever been.” 2002 Europe adopts its own currency. The euro is initially introduced in cash form in 12 EU countries. It has been available for interbank transactions since 1999. The headquarters of the newly established European Central Bank (ECB) is in Frankfurt am Main. 2019 The European Com- mission proposes its European Green Deal. The aim is to make Europe the first climate-neutral cont- inent by 2050. Ger many is pressing ahead with the process and aims to achieve climate neutrality itself by 2045. 2020 In response to the Covid-19 pandemic the EU sets up an unprece- dented reconstruction package worth billions of euros. The initiative for the “NextGenerationEU” plan came from Germany and France.
Commitment to peace and security Germany’s global commitment to peace and secur- ity, promoting human rights and protecting minor- ities are unchanging foundations of its foreign policy and are rooted in the Basic Law. On the one hand, Germany accepts this duty out of recognition of its historical responsibilities. On the other hand, it is in Germany’s interest to prevent crises and manage conflicts, as the effects of crises may be felt around the world, including in Germany. Russia’s illegal war of aggression against Ukraine gravely undermines international security and stability in Europe. Germany’s multilateral links form the basis for its foreign policy activity. For example, deployments of the armed forces always take place within systems of collect ive defence or security. Above all, these involve international organisations such as the UN, the EU or NATO. The Bundestag must also approve deployment of German forces abroad. For this reason, the German armed forces are considered a parliamentary military force. For the Federal Government, the priority is always to use civilian means. The primary goal is always to identify crises and conflicts at an early stage and to defuse them before they can escalate. Disarmament and arms control are key elements of German foreign policy. They form the guiding principle for efforts to pro- mote peace, security and development as described crises, in guidelines developed by the Federal Foreign Office in 2017: “Preventing resolving conflicts, building peace”. For the Federal Government, paying close attention to the connections between the climate crisis and issues around peace, security is an essential task, so as to identify cli- mate-related conflicts at an early stage. Increasingly, the focus is on new threats to global security in cyberspace. The Federal Govern- ment has created a new National Security Strategy to counter these challenges. The Strategy is be- ing draw up in 2022 and includes wide-ranging public consult- ations. The Strategy is based on a comprehensive security concept which takes a holistic view of human security. A RELIABLE PARTNER IN NATO Ever since the formation of the federal armed forces in 1955, Ger- many has been integrated into NATO both politically and mili- tarily. Germany’s place at the heart of the north Atlantic alliance is part of the DNA of German for- eign policy. The German armed forces are a major provider of NATO troops. For example, Ger- many has contributed to the NATO KFOR security force in Kosovo since 1999. German armed forces are also taking a leading role as a “framework nation” to help secure
PARTNERS IN EUROPE AND AROUND THE WORLD 48 | 49 NATO’s eastern frontier. This is part of the enhanced Forward Pres- ence mission (eFP), which contrib- utes to safeguarding Eastern Euro- pean states. Germany is supporting the close cooperation between NATO and the EU and consistently advocates for the impact of climate change to be given greater consid- eration in security policy. In the context of Russia’s war of aggression, the Federal Govern- ment set up a special armed forc- es fund in 2022 worth 100 billion euros. Germany is modernising the equipment used by its armed forces and strengthening its national defences and those of its allies. By doing this, Germany is meeting its obligations from the 2014 NATO summit in Wales and the 2022 Ma- drid summit most recently, and is making long-term investments in necessary military capacities. TRUSTED AND VALUED MEMBER OF THE UNITED NATIONS Ever since Germany joined the UN in 1973, the Fed- eral Republic has been a committed, reliable and valued member of the organisation. Germany is the fourth-largest contributor to the UN general budget. In 2021, Germany contributed 6.1% of the budget, worth around 176 million dollars (US). For the period from July 2021 to June 2022, it provided an ad- ditional 400 million USD for the budgets of individual peace missions. Germany’s support for the missions Federal Foreign Minister Baerbock in conversation with German troops deployed on a UN mission to Mali
German armed forces are deployed on missions in- cluding the UNIFIL peacekeeping mission off the coast of Lebanon. The corvette Erfurt sets sail to join the UNIFIL mission. includes providing stabilisation measures, making efforts to achieve mediation through diplomacy and providing aid in the aftermath of crises. It also sup- plies troops, police officers and expert personnel. For example, Germany’s armed forces are contribut- ing to one of the UN’s longest-running peacekeeping missions, the UNIFIL, which safeguards peace between Israel and Lebanon. In concrete terms, the deployment includes helping the Lebanese government secure its sea borders and supporting the prevention of arms smuggling. Members of the German armed forces are also contributing to the training of the Lebanese navy. The United Nations also has a considerable presence in Ger- many, with a number of of fices in the country. The UN High Commissioner Refugees (UNHCR) opened a regional office in Bonn in 1951. Since then, some 30 UN organisations have offic- es in Germany, particularly at the for
PARTNERS IN EUROPE AND AROUND THE WORLD 50 | 51 Signed in 1975, the Accords declared that the invi- olability of frontiers and the peaceful settlement of disputes were the principles for maintaining peace in Europe. The OSCE now comprises 57 member states from Europe, North America and Central Asia, making it the world’s largest regional security or- ganisation. With the goal of preventing conflicts and promoting democratisation, the OSCE maintains permanent missions in many countries. Its work in- cludes regularly sending election observers to mem- ber states, and Germany contributes to this process. The Center for International Peace Operations (ZIF) also works to help prevent crises and consolidate peace around the world. The ZIF was set up in 2002 by the Federal Government and the Bundestag. Working on behalf of the Federal Foreign Office, the ZIF trains civilian experts and supplies personnel for peace and election observer missions. Around 6,000 election ob- servers have been deployed within 20 years. is making an COMMITMENT TO DISARMAMENT AND ARMS CONTROLS important contribution Germany its commitment to to global security through disarma ment and arms control. The Federal Gov- ernment is working towards a world free of nuclear weapons, based on the foundation of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). In addition, Germany is campaigning to promote the universality and implementation of international treaties and agreements relevant to this area, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, which codifies rules prohibiting the use of chemical weapons. Ger- many is also actively involved in promoting the glob- al ban on mines and cluster munitions. Specifically the Federal Government is supporting humanitarian efforts to clear mines and weapons and to care for victims. UN Campus in Bonn, where over 20 organisations are headquartered. Another essential pillar upholding peace and security is the Organ- ization for Security and Co-oper- ation in Europe (OSCE), which Germany supports in intensive and varied ways. The OSCE is suc- ceeded the Conference on Secu- rity and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) in 1995. The OSCE has its origins in the Helsinki Accords.
German foreign policy – facts and figures GERMANY IS A TRUSTED PARTNER AROUND THE WORLD Founder member of the European Union Fourth-largest contributor to the United Nations Member of NATO since 1955 International Cooperation in G7 and G20 THE 27 EU MEMBER STATES Along with France, Italy, Belgium the Netherlands and Luxembourg, Germany is one of the 6 founder members of the EU. In 2022 there are 27 members of the EU, and other countries hope to join the Union soon. Sweden Ireland Denmark Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg France Portugal Spain Germany Poland Czech Republic Slovakia Austria Hungary Romania Slovenia Croatia Italy Bulgaria Greece Malta Cyprus
PARTNERS IN EUROPE AND AROUND THE WORLD 52 | 53 GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY “We’re in a marathon, not a sprint. We must keep global food security on the agenda for the men, women and children who are in need around the world.” FEDERAL FOREIGN MINISTER ANNALENA BAERBOCK Around 2 BILLION EUROS are invested each year in global food security and agricultural development by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT EXPANDS HUMANITARIAN AID Germany is the world’s second-largest state donor of aid. (billions of euros) 2.57 2.14 1.78 1.53 1.63 1.31 0.36 0.44 0.51 0.27 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Source: Federal Foreign Office
Upholding human rights “Human dignity shall be inviolable. To respect and protect it shall be the duty of all state authority.” This is the clear duty imposed by Article 1 of the Basic Law, in which Germany has committed itself to “inviolable and inalienable human rights” as “the basis of every community, of peace and of justice in the world.” Germany takes this obligation seriously, at home and in its relations with other states. The protection and strengthening of human rights play a particular role in the context of foreign policy and international rela- tions, as systematic human rights violations are often the first step towards conflicts and crises. As a member of the Council of Europe, Germany works with part- ners in the European Union and the United Nations to protect and improve human rights standards around the world. UNITED NATIONS 198 million The sum contributed by Germany to the general budget of the United Nations in 2022. Accounting for around 6% of the to- tal budget, this makes the Federal Republic the fourth-largest contributor after the USA, China and Japan. These MAKING A DIFFERENCE THROUGH THE UNITED NATIONS Germany is a signatory to all the major UN human rights conven- tions and their supplementary protocols. conventions allowed states to create a com- prehensive system of treaties to protect human rights, based on the Charter of the United Nations and the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Germany has ratified many legally binding con- ventions, including the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on the Elimin ation of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention Against Torture, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Rights of Per- sons with Disabilities, and the Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disap- pearance. German law enshrines the rights and obligations on the state de- fined in the treaties. At the same
PARTNERS IN EUROPE AND AROUND THE WORLD 54 | 55 Session of the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva. time, the Federal Government's activities around the world in- clude promoting protection from discrimination and racism. It also campaigns against the death pen- alty and calls for greater political participation and the protection of rights. Germany defends free- doms of religion and conscience, combats human trafficking and pushes for the enforcement of rights to habitation, clean drinking water and sanitation, for example. The German government is also campaigning for a UN convention on LGBTQI rights. Another current priority of German rights policy is protecting human rights in the digital age. Within the United Nations, the Federal Government is actively supporting the work of the UN Human Rights Council and campaigning to further strengthen the High Com- missioner for Human Rights. MAKING A DIFFERENCE THROUGH THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE When it comes to protecting and promoting human rights, the rule of law and democracy across the whole of Europe, Germany is one of the most active mem- bers of the Council of Europe. There are 46 mem-
bers of the Council, including the 27 members of the European Union. Through groundbreaking agree- ments and above all the European Convention on Hu- man Rights, the Council of Europe is helping develop a common European legal space. It also monitors obser- vance of binding common standards and values in the continent of Europe. The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), which is based in Strasbourg in France, is a core institution by which the Council can enforce these rights. All citizens of member states can appeal to the ECHR against violations of rights protected by the Human Rights Convention. Germany strongly ad- vocates for all state parties to implement the court’s decisions. The International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the Hague in the Netherlands is responsible for pun- ishing serious crimes under international law such as war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. Germany supports universal recognition of the ICJ. HUMAN RIGHTS POLICY AND HUMANITARIAN AID The office of the Commissioner for Human Rights Policy and Humanitarian Assistance has been part of the Federal Foreign Office since 1998. The commissioners are the primary point of contact for mat- ters of human rights protection. They are active internationally as members of EU and OSCE com- mittees, the Council of Europe and the United Nations. They also hold an important position when it comes to involving civil society organisations and groups in hu- man rights policy. Internally their role is as independent advisors, supporting relevant processes across the whole Federal Govern- ment. At a parliamentary level, German human rights policy has been supported and overseen by the Committee for Human Rights and Humanitarian Assistance of the German Bundestag. The German
PARTNERS IN EUROPE AND AROUND THE WORLD 56 | 57 Food supplies in Mozambique – aid agencies are active around the world. “People around the world count on us in their hour of greatest need, and it is our responsibility as a society not to let them down.” Federal Foreign Minister Annalena Baerbock Institute for Human Rights was established in Berlin in 2001 as a state-funded but still independ- ent office. Its role as the national human rights institution is to con- tribute to promoting and protect- ing human rights in Germany and in accordance with the Paris Prin- ciples of the United Nations. HUMANITARIAN AID FOR PEOPLE IN DIRE NEED The Federal Government pro- vides humanitarian aid to support people around the world who are in distress due to natural disasters, armed conflicts or other crises or conflicts, and who are consequent- ly at specific risk. Aid is provid- ed regardless of the cause of the hardship. Humanitarian aid is an expression of ethical responsibility and a sign of solidarity with those in need. It is targeted at the needs of those in distress and is based on the humanitarian principles of benev- olence, neutral ity, impartiality and independence. Around the world, Germany takes responsibility for those in need and is an active campaigner for a strong- er and better developed international humanitar- ian system. This can be seen from Germany’s actual financial commitment – the Federal Republic is the world’s second largest state donor of humanitarian aid. Between 2018 and 2021 the Federal Government increased funding by 70% to 2.57 billion euros in re- sponse to increased needs around the world. This was driven by armed conflicts, climate change and above all the Covid-19 pandemic during 2020. The Federal Government is also campaigning internationally to get the international community to take more action. The basis of Germany’s humanitarian aid was set out in the Federal Foreign Office’s 2019 “Strategy of the Federal Foreign Office for Humanitarian Assistance Abroad”. Key partners in this are UN organisations, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent movements and other NGOs. Providing water supplies is a key element of humanitarian aid.
Providing advice and support to cotton farmers in India Promoting sustainable development German development policy is a cornerstone of a global structural and peace policy, helping improve living conditions in partner countries. It aims to defeat hunger and poverty around the world and to strengthen democracy and the rule of law. Ger- many’s development policy follows the Agenda 2030 for sustainable development, which was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 2015. At its heart are 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) that aim to promote sustainable social, economic and environmental development. The SDGs ranging from eradicating hunger and ensuring equal access to education for all, to achieving gender equality and taking cli- mate action and promoting peace. The Federal Government is a trusted and robust partner when it comes to implementing the
PARTNERS IN EUROPE AND AROUND THE WORLD 58 | 59 EUROPE’S FIRST MINISTRY FOR DEVELOPMENT In the years after the Second World War, Germany it- self received billions of dollars of aid from the USA. For decades it has implemented an active develop- ment policy and in 1961 became the first country in Europe to establish a Ministry for Development. Ger- man policy prioritises promoting ways for people to help themselves, acting as part of a broad partnership that includes members of the public, private enter- prise, and state and civil society organisations as well as governments. The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) sees its role as a ministry of transformation, promoting the global transition to a sustainable, climate and environmen- tally friendly economic system, while at the same time strengthening peace, freedom and human rights. Significant aspects of German development policy are combating hunger and poverty, protecting the climate and species diversity, and improving health and education. It also prioritises gender equality, fair supply chains, and the benefits of digitalisation and technology transfer. It also seeks to boost private in- vestment to promote sustainable development. GLOBAL CAMPAIGN FOR FOOD SECURITY The war against hunger remains a key challenge. Every year, the Federal Ministry for Economic Co- operation and Development invests around 2 bil- lion euros in global food security and agricultural development. Promoting small-scale agriculture in Africa is a key focus of this work. Germany is also the second-largest state donor to the World Food Pro- gramme (WFP). the development agenda. As second-largest provider of fund- ing for public development work, Germany is taking responsibility by actively shaping global part- nerships. Germany has consist- ently achieved the UN target of investing at least 0.7% of GDP in development activities. Support for projects in partner countries is provided by GIZ (the Deutsche Gesellschaft Internation- ale Zusammenarbeit), the KfW banking other organisations. group für and
Climate and environment C L I M AT E P O L IC Y PIO N E E R Germany intends to set the standard for climate protection at a nation- al and international level. Protecting nature and the environment has been a priority for many years. A summary. T R A N S F O R M I N G E N E RGY F O R T H E N E X T G E N E R AT IO N Phasing out coal, gas and oil completely is a key priority for German politics. A massive expansion of renewable sources is underway to achieve this. I N T E R N AT IO N A L C L I M AT E CO O P E R AT IO N From global climate conferences to bilateral agreements, Germany is pushing for climate protection at an international level. It is particu- larly committed to its responsibility towards developing and emerging countries. M O BI L I T Y F O R T H E F U T U R E Sustainable and innovative forms of mobility are a priority for Germany, from expanding electrical mobility to boosting rail travel. VITAL DIVERSITY Germany is committed to protecting biodiversity at home and around the world.
By 2030, around 80% of electricity will come from renewable sources. AROUND 48,000 SPECIES live in Germany. C L I M AT E A N D E N V I R O N M E N T 7 Facts There will be at least 15 Million electric cars in Germany by 2030. Since 1994 the Basic Law has required the state to protect the environment. Nature is allowed to thrive undisturbed in 16 NATIONAL PARKS Germany contributes over 5 BILLION EUROS each year to international climate funding. THE 1.5° TARGET from the Paris Agreement is the top priority for German climate protection policy.
CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT 62 | 63 Climate policy pioneer Climate protection is a top priority for Ger- many. The key goal is to expand renewable energy sources at home and abroad. Germany aims to become a climate-neutral industrial nation by 2045. This puts the Federal Republic at the forefront of international efforts to combat the cli- mate crisis. The planned energy transformation is key to success, with a rapid transition from fossil fuels to renewables. Germany has already decided to phase out nuclear and coal-fired electricity generation. At the beginning of 2022, the Federal Government stepped up measures to accelerate the energy transformation in order to end Germany’s dependence on fossil fuel imports as soon as possible. Germany’s climate policy is guided by the 2015 UNFCCC Paris Agreement, as well as Agenda 2030 and the principle of climate justice. Under the Paris Agree- Nature and agriculture in harmony ment, the international commu- nity set itself the target of keeping global warming well below 2° and below 1.5° if possible. The Federal Government considers this climate protection target a “top priority”. In order to achieve it, the government intends to restructure the social market economy into a socio-envi- ronmental market economy. Protecting nature and the environ- ment have been high on the agenda in Germany for decades. Combating species extinction is a particularly high priority for the Federal Government. CLEAR GOALS FOR GERMANY’S CLIMATE PROTECTION LAW Explicit guidelines for climate pro- tection have been set down in law since May 2021. The law requires Germany to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by at least 65% com- pared to 1990 levels by 2030. That should reach 88% by 2040 and by 2045 Germany must ultimately achieve green house gas neutrality. This means there is a balance be- tween the rate of greenhouse gas emissions and how quickly they break down. There have already been substan- tial cuts to greenhouse gas emis- sions in Germany since 1990. By 2021 emissions were down 40% to 762 million tonnes. However, that must be cut to at least 438 million tonnes by 2030.
SETTING THE COURSE FOR THE ENERGY TRANSFORMATION The energy transformation is the defining project of this century and the Federal Government intends to make decisive progress this decade. By 2023, 80% of Germany’s energy needs will have to be met by re- newable sources such as wind or solar power. It had originally been planned to phase out coal by 2038, but that too will be achieved during this decade. Coal- fired electricity generation is considered one of the most serious causes of harmful CO2 emissions. In late 2011 Germany decided to gradually phase out nuclear power. The last nuclear power station will be taken of- fline by 2023 at the latest. Security and economic policy concerns make it ne- cessary to implement the energy transformation as quickly as possible. The Federal Government intends P ROT EC T I N G I N S EC T S Insects make up almost three quarters of all animal species in Germany. They are a vital part of the ecosystem. Insects pollinate plants so they can reproduce. They are integral to nu- trient cycles, as well as breaking down organic materials, controlling biological pests, clean- ing water and maintaining fertile soils. How- ever, there are fewer and fewer insects, and the decline in insect populations is affecting both total numbers and species diversity. The Fed- eral Ministry for the Environment has created the Action Programme for Insect Protection to put a halt to this trend. to use measures such as speeding up planning and approval proced- ures for solar and wind power fa- cilities to support the restructuring of energy supplies. At the same time, Germany will invest over 200 billion euros in climate protection by 2026. TRUSTED PARTNER FOR CLIMATE POLICY Germany is strongly committed to global cooperation on climate protection. After all, the only way to achieve intended limits to tem- perature increases is through con- certed action by the international community. One core element of this is the European Union’s Green Deal. It aims to make Europe the first climate-neutral continent by 2050. Germany’s support includes reforms to EU emissions trading and a CO2 price escalator, which will incentivise climate protection. At the same time, the Federal Gov- ernment plans to forge further climate partnerships with other countries outside Europe, par- ticularly in major emerging econ- omies. One benefit from these will be to help other countries phase out coal-fired electricity gener- ation. Following the 2021 Bun- destag elections, climate foreign policy was reaffirmed as a key pri- ority for the Federal Foreign Office. Federal Foreign Minister Annalena Baerbock described the primary
C L I M AT E A N D E N V I R O N M E N T 6 4 | 6 5 object ive as “Using every tool we have to improve climate protec- tion and to facilitate sustainable development for every country on earth.” She also identifies the cli- mate crisis as “the major security policy issue of the age”. She also stresses that climate foreign policy is an integral part of any security strategy: “Every tonne of CO2 that can be reduced, every tenth of a degree less global warming makes a contribution to the security of humankind.” P R O T E C T I N G T H E E N V I R O N - M E N T – A N AT I O N A L O B J E C T I V E Germany is also committed to im- proving protection for the natural world and biodiver- sity, both at home and internationally. Since 1994, the Basic Law has required the state to protect the natu- ral environment. The Action Plan on Nature-based Solutions for Climate and Biodiversity is one way the Federal Government aims to boost efforts to maintain biodiversity (the diversity of genes, species and natural habitats). Over 4 billion euros are available until 2026 for the programme, which aims to help restore natural ecosystems such as forests, meadows and moorland. Germany is also actively engaged in promoting species protection, such as under the Washington Convention. The Convention protects endangered plant and animal species from excessive exploitation by internation- al trade. Around the world over a million species are threatened with extinction, with many at risk of dying out in the next few decades. The UNESCO Spreewald Biosphere Reserve near Berlin not only helps nature, but gives people a chance to relax.
P H OTOVO LTA IC P OW E R 2.2 million The number of solar power facilities in Ger- many in March 2022. The vast majority are on the roofs of private houses. One in ten houses in Germany has its own photovoltaic equipment. They supply almost 10% of the electricity produced in Germany.
CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT 66 | 67 Transforming energy for the next generation The energy transformation is being driven forward as a high priority in Germany. The core elements are im- proving energy efficiency and expanding renewables as quickly as possible. Instead of generating electricity from oil, coal, gas or nuclear power, in future Germany will get its power from the wind, sun, water and biomass. By 2030 at least 80% of the electricity used in Germany will be pro- duced from renewable sources. This fundamental shift in energy supplies is a key precondition for Germany to transform itself into a climate-neutral industrial na- tion by 2045. An additional challenge arises from the fact that expanding renewables must cover expected increases in demand, such as from the greater use of electrical mobility. In response to security and economic policy concerns, Germany intends at the same time to end its depend- ency on oil and gas imports. The Federal Republic has few natural resources of its own, so it must import the majority of its fossil fuels from other countries. The rapid switch to renewable energy sources therefore also serves to minimise and ultimately completely remove the associated dependencies. The energy transform- ation is the defining project for this generation, and will Solar power facilities – easily scalable and highly flexible guarantee energy supplies that are cleaner, cheaper and safer in future. DECISION TO PHASE OUT COAL AND NUCLEAR ENERGY Germany started phasing out nu- clear and coal-fired electricity gen- eration at an early stage. In 2000 the then Federal Government made an agreement with German energy companies to phase out nuclear power. After the disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011, the decision was taken to cease all nuclear power generation by the end of 2022. The last nuclear power station will be taken offline by 2023 at the latest. A law passed in 2020 also requires that Germany phases out all coal- fired electricity generation no later than 2038. The coal-producing re- gions in Germany that are affected by the change are being given as- sistance with the necessary struc- tural transformation. The Federal Government that took office at the end of 2021 is striving to phase out coal earlier, ideally by 2030. SETTING A COURSE EARLY FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY Germany first began promoting regenerative energy sources in the
1990s and passed the Renewable Energies Sources Act (EEG) in 2000. The law included what was known as the EEG levy, which distributed the increased cost of expanding environmentally friendly generation across consumers on a proportional basis. The Federal Govern- ment scrapped the levy in 2022 in order to reduce the burden felt by consumers due to sharp rises in the cost of energy. Thanks to government funding, a significant part of Germany’s electricity now comes from renewable sources. This amounted to around 49% in the first 6 months of 2022. The Federal Government intends to drive forward the expansion of renewables in the 2020s. In concrete terms this will mean the creation of new wind farms, on land but primarily offshore. All suitable roof areas should be used to generate solar energy, and there are plans for more solar farms in agricultural areas. However, the energy transformation not only requires new generating facilities – a suitable electricity grid is also needed. Hundreds of kilometres of new high voltage transmission lines will need to be built, above all to carry electricity generated from wind power in northern Germany to the large industrial complexes in the south of the country. The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action describes the expansion of the national grid and local distribution networks as “critical to the success of the energy trans- formation”. GREEN HYDROGEN – A CORE COMPONENT OF THE ENERGY TRANSFORMATION The use of green hydrogen (hydrogen is produced us- ing electricity from renewable sources) is considered vital to the success of the energy transformation. This is particularly important to make industrial activity sus- tainable. For example, green hydrogen can be used in applications where electrification appears impractical or impossible, such as the steel and chemical industries, as well as aviation and shipping. Germany's green hydrogen strat- egy places a strong emphasis on international partnerships. This is due to the need to import large quantities of green hydrogen, which is easiest to produce in areas where there are adequate sources of renewable solar or wind energy. One way the Federal Government is meeting this need is by expand- ing strategic partnerships, such as with countries in the Middle East and North Africa, southern and western Africa, and Australia. At the same time Germany is promot- ing research and development in green hydrogen with the goal of creating modern and future-ori- ented climate protection technol- ogies to become a leader on the international stage. USING ENERGY MORE EFFICIENTLY Germany not only needs to pro- duce more green energy. It also needs to use energy more effi- ciently and sparingly. After all, as the saying goes: “the cleanest and cheapest energy is the energy you don't even use.” Primary energy consumption has already dropped considerably. In 2020, energy use was down almost 17% compared to 2008 and the aim is to achieve a 50% reduction by 2050. There is clear potential to make savings in buildings and homes. These use around 35% of Germa- ny’s total consumption, such as for heating and hot water. Ger-
CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT 68 | 69 Germany’s largest wind farms are in the North Sea. many is providing government funding to help members of the public renovate their homes in an energy-efficient way. Since 2000, over 5 million property owners have carried out renovation of this kind, such as replacing old heating systems or installing en- ergy-saving windows. Digitalisation is also helping make the energy transformation a suc- intelligent cess by introducing metering systems, for example. Analogue electricity meters are increasingly being replaced by “smart me- ters”. The benefits include ensuring that the bill payer pays only for the electricity actual used and operating time. This can make it easier for consumers to identi- fy the best way for them to save energy. Intelligent metering systems also help achieve the right balance between electricity generation and usage on the grid. For example, if in future more and more members of the public charge electric cars at the same time during the night, these me- ters can help ensure there is enough electricity available.
The energy transformation – facts and figures E L EC T R IC I T Y F RO M S U N, W I N D A N D WAT E R Much of Germany’s gross electricity generation comes from solar, wind and hydropower. Offshore wind energy 24.4 TWh Photovoltaic power 50.0 TWh 1 0. 4 % 21.4 % Onshore wind energy 89.5 TWh % 3 . 8 3 2 1 .6 % 8.2% Biomass 50.4 TWh 2021, source: Umweltbundesamt Geothermal electricity generation not shown due to limited quantities (0.2 TWh) Hydropower 19.1 TWh W I N D E N E RGY S O L A R P OW E R 28,000 The number of onshore wind energy facilities in Germany in 2021. 4.7 million The number of solar power and solar heating systems in Germany in 2021.
CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT 70 | 71 C L E A R C L I M AT E AC T IO N G OA L S Germany aims to become a climate-neutral industrial nation by 2045. 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 ) s t n e l a v i u q E . 2 O C f o s e n n o t f o s n o i l l i m ( 1,249 -35.1% 810 -65% 438 1990 2019 2030 y n a m r e G n i s n o i s s i m e s a g e s u o h n e e r G By 2030 Germany aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 65% compared to 1990. By 2040 Germany aims to make at least 88% reductions and achieve greenhouse gasneutrality by 2045. “We have made a commitment: Germany must be climate neutral by 2045. We are faced with the greatest transformation of our industry and economy for at least 100 years.” F E D E R A L C H A N C E L LO R O L A F S C H O L Z E X PA N DI N G R E N E WA B L E E N E RGY Renewable energy has greatly increased as a proportion of gross electricity consumption since 2000. 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 41.1% 31.4% 10.3% 6.3% 17.1% 2000 2005 2010 2015 2021 Source: Umweltbundesamt
International climate cooperation The climate crisis demands global cooperation, as no single state or region can overcome this global challenge alone. For decades Germany has been campaigning for climate action at an international level. In order to reinforce these efforts, the Federal Foreign Office has taken over responsibility for international policies and set itself a goal of making international climate cooper- ation a priority across all policy and departmental areas. A DRIVING FORCE FOR WORLD CLIMATE CONFERENCES The COP world climate conferences held under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are a key lever in international cli- mate policy. Germany was a driving force behind the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The 2015 Paris Agreement marked a major break- through, where all states made a binding commitment under international law to develop and implement Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) for climate action. The international commu- nity has also set itself the goal of keeping the rise in global tempera- tures to well below 2° C and below 1.5° C if possible. Germany intends to use its ac- tive climate foreign policy to help achieve the objectives of the Agreement. As part of this, the Federal Government uses the Pe- tersberg Climate Dialogue to lay the groundwork for successful ne- gotiations at global climate confer- ences. Each year, high-ranking state representatives from around M I L E S TO N E S 1971 Environmental policy comes to the fore. The Federal Government adopts its first envir- onmental programme. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety is set up in 1986. 1994 Environmental conser- vation is enshrined in the Basic Law as a national objective. Article 20a states: “Mindful also of its responsibility towards future generations, the state shall protect the natural foundations of life and animals.” 1995 Three years after the pioneering Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the first UN COP climate conference is held in Ber- lin. From the very outset, Germany has been a driving force for world climate conferences.
CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT 72 | 73 the world gather in Germany to take part in the Dialogue. The Fed- eral Government also provides ac- tive support for the work of the In- tergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The IPCC issues reports that summarise and eval- uate the latest climate research, thereby providing an important foundation for science-based cli- mate policy. SUPPORTING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Germany acknowledges its respon- sibility to help developing countries implement climate protection and adaptation measures. Indus trial na- tions have pledged to mobilise 100 billion dollars each year from 2020 onwards towards this end. In 2020 Germany contributed around 5 bil- lion euros from its budget, which will rise to 6 billion euros by 2025 at the latest. The to- tal contributions from public funds (including support such as development and promotional loans) amounted to just under 8 billion euros in 2020. Germany is a driving force behind climate partner- ships with other countries. For example, Germany is working with states through the NDC partnership, which was set up in 2016, to help them achieve their national climate protection goals. Germany used its G7 Presidency in 2022 to campaign for international cooperation on climate action. At its instigation, the G7 nations agreed to set up a Climate Club which will effectively be open to all countries. In addition the G7 committed themselves to push forward Just Energy Transition Partnerships (JETP) with India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Senegal. These partnerships with pivotal countries for climate policy in the Global South provide a powerful lever to help implement the Paris Agreement. Germany has already joined other countries to create a partnership of this kind with South Africa. 2000 The Renewable Energies Law comes into force. It includes provisions to give priority to electricity from renewable sources for feed in and connections to the grid. The law becomes a milestone. 2011 Following the nuclear acci- dent at Fukushima in Japan, the government decides to phase out nuclear power more quickly. Standard op- eration of all nuclear power stations will cease by the end of 2022. The final power stations will be taken offline no later than 2023. 2021 In a new climate action law, the Federal Gov- ernment declares that Germany shall be climate neutral by 2045. The Federal Republic intends to use ambitious goals to be achieved by 2030 to set an example on the international stage.
Mobility for the future Transforming the transport system is an essential element of achieving climate protection goals in Ger- many and around the world. For this to happen, there will need to be substantial reductions to harmful emis- sions from the transport sector. Germany intends to set the standard for electrical mobility markets while also funding work on alternative fuels and massively expanding travel by rail and bike. The long-term goal is to completely decarbonise the transport sector. The German government’s plans include increasing the number of fully electric cars to at least 15 million by 2030. Measures put in place by the Federal Gov- ernment include an environment bonus to support purchases of battery-powered cars. This is accompanied by the expansion of the charging station infrastructure. The German car in- dustry is also accelerating the tran- sition. The German Association of the Automotive Industry (VDA) reports that manufacturers and suppliers belonging to the associ- ation will invest 150 billion euros in electrical mobility, new motors and digitalisation by 2025. German manufacturers already offer over 80 different models of electric cars. PROMOTING BATTERY CELL MANUFACTURING Battery cell manufacturing is con- sidered a key industry for electrical transportation, as powerful bat-
Hydrogen-powered trains must replace diesel locomotives. Germany intends to set the standard for electrical mobility markets. The long- term goal is to com- pletely decarbonise the entire transport sector. and teries are needed to allow electric cars to drive long distances and charge quickly. The Federal Gov- ernment intends to make Germa- ny a “Centre for Battery Research, Manufacture Recycling”. Germany is working closely with other EU partners under the aegis of Important Projects of Common European Interest (IPCEI) to pro- mote battery cell manufacturing, with numerous German firms tak- ing part. Germany will invest over 13 billion euros by 2030 through IPCEI projects alone. The Fed- eral Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action has allocated around 3 billion euros to expand battery cell production for the period up to 2031. CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT 74 | 75 NATIONAL HYDROGEN STRATEGY Hydrogen has a key part to play in the energy trans formation, as it is a key element in developing sustaina ble mobility. Green hydrogen can be used as a fuel in a range of contexts and is described as the “oil of the future”. Its uses include the transportation of heavy goods, aviation and shipping, as battery power is often not suitable in these cases. The Federal Government adopted a national hydrogen strategy in 2020. Its goals include supporting research into this field. Germany is also expanding hydrogen partnerships within Europe and around the world. EXPANDING RAIL AND CYCLE TRANSPORT Rail travel will make a major contribution to transpor- tation of the future. The Federal Government’s plans include increasing rail freight traffic by 25% by 2030 and doubling passenger traffic. Cycling is also being given a boost, with plans to expand and modernise the network of cycle routes. More and more vehicles are filling up with electricity.
Vital diversity Germany is a nation of great biological diversity. Around 48,000 species of animals, 9,500 species of plants and 14,000 species of fungi are native to the country. Protecting the foundations of life is an official national objective, a requirement added to the Basic Law in 1994. From the North Sea to the Alps, 16 widely different national parks and UNESCO biosphere re- serves serve to protect the environment and natural world. There are also thousands of nature reserves. Germany is a signatory to the major international bio- diversity conventions and numerous intergovernmen- WA D D E N S E A N AT IO N A L PA R K The German, Danish and Dutch North Sea coast is a unique habitat known as the Wad- den Sea. Huge mudflats emerge at low tide where hundreds of thousands of migra tory birds can find food. The Wadden Sea is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with three na- tional parks and three biosphere reserves in Germany alone. There are also national parks in Denmark and the Netherlands. By main- taining these, the three countries are working together to live up to their duty to protect this unique natural landscape between sea and land for everyone. tal agreements and is involved in many programs aimed at protect- ing the natural world. By ratifying the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, the governments of 196 countries have committed them- selves to protecting the diversity of life on Earth. Germany first adopt- ed a national strategy on biological diversity in 2007. The Federal Gov- ernment considers maintaining species diversity as “the duty of hu- manity and an ethical obligation”. Its support for the objectives of the EU’s biodiversity strategy, which include providing legal protection for at least 30% of the continent's land areas and 30% of its marine area. PRESERVING HABITATS FOR NATURE AND ANIMALS In Germany, 35% of native species and 26% of native plant species are endangered. The measures put in place to address this include mini- mising the harm caused to habitats from the construction of homes and roads, as well as keeping pol- lutants to a minimum, such as those due to intensive farming and the excessive use of fertilisers. The rate at which land is used for set- tlements and new roads is to be re- duced to less than 30 hectares a day by 2030. Work is also in progress to leave 2% of Germany’s land area “wild” and to allow 5% of forests to develop naturally.
CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT 76 | 77 BETTER PROTECTION FOR THE SEA The Federal Government’s Na- tional Marine Strategy aims to boost protection for the seas. The seas are rich in biodiversity. They provide raw materials, energy and food, but are at risk around the world from pollution and plastic waste. Special protection zones in the North Sea and the Baltic off Germany’s coast are being created to provide effective marine protec- tion. In 2022 the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) resolved to conclude a legally binding convention by 2024 which would regulate how plastic is managed in an environmentally friendly way, from manufacture to consumption and recycling or disposal. The Federal Government considers this a major success. Insects are an essential part of ecosystems, but their number and diversity have suffered serious declines for years. To combat the decline in insect populations, a comprehensive package of measures was adopt- ed in 2021. These include improving protection for biotopes such as meadow orchards as habitats for in- sects. The use of pesticides in agriculture will also be reduced and the use of glyphosate as a weedkiller will be banned from the end of 2023. Research is shaping the future: how will forests cope with longer periods of lower rainfall?
Business and digitalisation ECO N O M IC I N N OVAT IO N Germany is one of the world’s strongest economies. The key foundations for this strength are innovation, export orientation and a thriving SME sector. The Federal Government is committed to following the principles of a social-economic market economy. A summary. G LO BA L P L AY E R Exports are a particular strength for Germany. As a member of numerous agreements and conventions, Germany guarantees stable trading con- ditions for its partners. At the same time it scrutinises compliance with human rights standards and promotes democracy around the world. E N T E R P R I S E A N D I N D U S T RY 4.0 Germany’s “hidden champions” are known as the “Mittelstand”, the small and medium-sized independent businesses that form the heart of the German economy. Major corporations with global reputations also shape the economic landscape. Germany’s strong industrial sector is set for a bright future. AT T R AC T I V E E M P LOY M E N T M A R K E T Germany has a stable employment market with excellent career oppor- tunities for international professionals. Many new laws and measures are making the process of finding a job, moving to Germany and staying in the country more and more attractive.
Germany’s 2021 gross domestic product was worth around 3.6 TRILLION EUROS. GOVERNMENT- SPONSORED TRAINING PROGRAMMES are available for 324 professions. B U S I N E S S A N D D I G I TA L I S AT I O N 7 Facts Around 99% of businesses in Germany are small and medium-sized enterprises. Around 26,000 PATENTS WERE REGISTERED in Germany in 2021, more than any other country in Europe. Germany is the world’s FOURTH-LARGEST ECONOMY, behind only the US, China and Japan. There are around 45 MILLION PEOPLE in employment. Germany is one of the world’s TOP THREE exporters.
BUSINESS AND DIGITALISATION 80 | 81 Innovative Economy Germany has the world’s fourth-largest economy. It is unique for its combination of a thriv- ing culture of innovation, a focus on exports and a robust SME sector. The Federal Government aims to create a social-environmental market economy in Germany. On the global market, Germany is particularly successful in the auto- motive industry, mechanical and plant engineering and the chem- icals industry. Germany also has a lively and diverse startup scene. Small and medium-sized enter- prises form the backbone of the German economy, hidden “Mittel- stand” champions from across the country that have achieved success on the global stage. Germany’s economy is the largest in the European Union and the fourth-largest in the world, after the US, China and Japan. As such, it enjoys a strong network of partnerships around the world, and regularly ranks in the top three nations for imports as well as exports. Germany’s GDP in 2021 was worth around 3.6 trillion euros. That year, German exports were worth around 1.375 billion euros, while imports were worth over 1.200 billion euros. Germany’s most important trade partners are the EU member states, the US and China. The driving force behind Ger- many’s economic progress is the thriving culture of innovation in German businesses. In order to secure and boost this success, Ger- many invests over 3% of GDP in research and development. This in- vestment is worth over 100 billion euros a year, with over two-thirds going to businesses. Germany is Frankfurt am Main, one of the world’s major financial centres
also providing targeted funding for new and disruptive technologies, innovations and business models. This included setting up the Federal Agency for Disruptive Innovation (SPRIND) in 2019 and the German Agency for Transfer and Innovation (DATI) in 2021. The Fed- eral Government adopted a new AI Strategy in 2018 and created a similar Startup Strategy in the summer of 2022. FROM SOCIAL MARKET ECONOMY TO SOCIAL-ENVIRONMENTAL MARKET ECONOMY Since 1949 German economic policy has been based on the model of a social market economy. Developed in the post-war years by Ludwig Erhard (who would later become Federal Chancellor), this concept has kept Germany’s economy on an upward track. It guarantees that businesses can trade freely while simultaneously striving to create social checks and balances. The Federal Government now aims to develop the proven model of the social market economy into a so- cial-environmental market economy. Climate action is now considered a core element of economic policy, as is evident in the creation of the first-ever Federal Min- istry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action follow- ing the 2021 Bundestag election. Robert Habeck (Alli- ance 90/The Greens) is the head of the new ministry. INDEPENDENT ENTERPRISE AND EUROPE’S FINANCIAL HUB A thriving ‘Milttelstand’ is a key characteristic of the German economy, with small and medium-sized en- terprises making up over 99% of all businesses in the country. They provide over half of all jobs and employ around 80% of trainees and apprentices. As such they are a pillar of Germany’s dual vocational educational system, which links theoretical teaching at vocational colleges and practical training in the workplace. This dual model enjoys an outstanding reputation around the world and has been adopted by many other countries. international Successful major corporations also help shape Ger- many as a place to do business. Many are listed on the DAX stock exchange in Frankfurt, the key fi- nancial centre on the continent of Europe. Frankfurt is also home to the headquarters of the European Central Bank (ECB), whose duties include monitoring the price sta- bility of the euro. A STABLE AND ATTRACTIVE EMPLOYMENT MARKET Germany’s employment market has proved its resilience even dur- ing periods of crisis such as the Covid-19 pandemic. Germany has one of the highest rates of employ- ment in the European Union and one of the lowest unemployment rates. Youth unemployment is also very low. Despite restrictions caused by measures to fight the Covid-19 pandemic, unemploy- ment in Germany in 2021 was only 5.7%. Supplementary payments to workers on reduced hours have also proved their worth. Through the “Kurzarbeitergeld” system, the state picks up a large part of sal- ary shortfalls when employers cut workers’ hours in response to chal- lenging economic conditions. This makes it possible for employees to keep their jobs even during a crisis,
BUSINESS AND DIGITALISATION 82 | 83 and for employers to hold onto their staff. Well trained specialist professionals are essential to the competitiveness of the German economy. Given this importance, Germany is improving the domestic legal, financial and regulatory environment, such as by expanding whole-day childcare provision. Changes to legislation, such as a law making it easier for qualified professionals to emigrate to Germany, will also help attract skilled workers from abroad – which is important given the demographic transition underway in Germany. DIGITALISATION FOR THE ECONOMY Like almost every other country around the world, Germany is faced with the challenge of promoting digitalisation in the economy and also of how to shape the digital transformation in the world of work. To help make this happen, Germany is expanding its digital in- frastructure in the form of broadband and 5G mobile technology. By developing technology for the Internet of Things (IoT), Germany is providing targeted support for Industry 4.0, where production processes are inte- grated with ways of communicating over the Internet. Through its Startup Strategy, the Federal Government also aims to make Germany a leading location in Europe. A range of measures and initiatives are helping clear away legal and regulatory barriers to setting up and financing startups, across areas such as innovation, digitalisation and sustainability. High-quality training and ongoing professional development help professionals gain the qualifications they need for good jobs.
The Kiel canal is one of the largest transport arteries in Europe. Global player Germany is an export-focused nation with a strong network of partners around the world. The Federal Government campaigns for open markets, and free and fair trade based on clear and robust regulations. Along with promoting multilateral trade liberalisation, supporting the European Union free trade agreement is also a priority. German economic diplomacy rests on key three pillars: 226 foreign diplomatic missions, the offices of 140 chambers of commerce abroad (AHK), delegations and representations of German business in 92 countries, and the Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI) economic development agency of the Federal Repub- lic of Germany. They provide targeted support to help German SMEs gain a foothold in foreign markets. is closely STRONG EXPORT FOCUS Germany interwoven into the global economy. Exports account for one in every two euros earned. According to the World Trade Organization’s an- nual rankings, Germany ranks as the world’s third-largest export nation, following the US and Chi- na. Germany’s key export goods
BUSINESS AND DIGITALISATION 84 | 85 are vehicles and vehicle components, with a volume of 210 billion dollars in 2021. These are followed by machines (196 billion dollars) and chemical products (137 billion dollars). Along with computing and optics, these three sectors account for almost half of Germa- ny’s export volume. Germany’s partners in the EU are the primary target market, followed by the US and the People’s Republic of China. The majority of imports in 2021 came from China, the Netherlands and the US. Trade and business relationships with Asian countries are continu ally growing in importance. Almost half of German businesses have invested abroad, and German companies employ over 7 million people abroad. CHAMPIONING FREE TRADE Germany is closely involved in shaping how inter- national trade is regulated. In addition to multilateral trade liberalisation under the aegis of the World Trade Organization (WTO), bilateral free trade agreements (FTA) through the European Union are a priority for Germany. The EU has already concluded around a dozen FTAs with partners, with plans to reach FTAs with many other countries. The EU-Japan Agreement came into force in 2019, creating the world’s largest economic area. Other examples include the EU-Can- ada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) and the EU-Vietnam FTA. Efforts are being made to conclude an FTA between the EU and the As- sociation of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). EUROPEAN LOGISTICS HUB Germany is a transhipment hub for the flow of goods in Europe and the world as a whole. More goods transit through Germany than any other EU country. Three In the annual WTO rankings, Germany is regularly among the top three largest exporters, behind the US and China.
million people are employed in the logistics sector. The Port of Hamburg, which processes around 9 mil- lion shipping containers each year, is a gateway to the world. Frankfurt Airport handled around 2.2 million tonnes of air freight in 2021, substantially more than any other European airport. BUSINESS AND HUMAN RIGHTS German trade policy places a particular emphasis on compliance with human rights standards and pro- moting human rights. At the end of 2016, the German government adopted its National Action Plan “Imple- mentation of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights” (NAP). It is based on the UN Guid- ing Principles on Business and Human Rights, which were adopted in 2011. Through a set of uniform and verifiable standards, the NAP imposes a responsibility on German businesses to uphold human rights along their global supply chains. Sector-specific dialogues and initiatives have been developed to help imple- ment the NAP. The automotive industry dialogues, for example, involves businesses, associations and civil so- ciety groups, and has proposed wide-ranging recom- mendations to implement the UN Guiding Principles. Another forum is the Textile Partnership, where the Federal Government works with NGOs, businesses and trade associations to develop standards for a social, ecological and cor- ruption-free textile and clothing industry. PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAINS Working in partnership with inter- national organisations such as the EU, the UN, the International La- bor Organisation (ILO), the OECD, as well as multilateral forums such as G7, G20 and the Asia-Eu- rope Meeting (ASEM), the Federal Government is campaigning for a level playing field and sustainable supply chains. It is paying particu- lar attention to the responsibility M I L E S TO N E S 1950 Germany is swiftly rebuilt from the ruins of the Second World War. The economy grows so quickly in the 1950s and 1960s that it is known as the Economic Miracle. 1964 There are soon shortages of industrial workers. Germany invites 14 million “Gast- arbeiter”. The millionth of these migrant workers arrives in 1964. Three million of them settle in Germany. Today, a quarter of Germany’s 83 million people come from migrant backgrounds. 1990 Following reunification, the “Treuhandanstalt” agency is set up to manage the transition of businesses from the East German planned economy into the social market economy. The efforts to rebuild the East German economy are known as “Aufbau Ost”.
BUSINESS AND DIGITALISATION 86 | 87 makes businesses responsible for safety at work, ade- quate pay, the right to join a trades union, preventing child and forced labour, protecting the rights of indig- enous people and protecting the environment at every stage of the supply chain. The Federal Government is also campaigning for the creation of European duty of care regulations. These would include duties to protect the environment and climate, in addition to protecting human rights. that German businesses have for their supply chains. A 2018/2019 review of the implementation of the NAP revealed that voluntary measures alone are not enough to ensure that businesses are ful- ly meeting their duties of care. In response, the Federal Government developed legislation that requires busi nesses to identify and combat human rights risks in their supply chains. Under the LkSG law, busi- nesses are also required to help victims of human rights viola- tions access compensation. The law applies to businesses based in Germany as well as the offices and branches of foreign business- es with at least 1,000 employees. From 2023 it will apply to business- es with more than 3,000 employees and from 2024 for businesses with 1,000 or more employees. It also Fair working conditions – a German policy goal 2016 The National Action Plan for Business and Human Rights is adopted in December. The supply chain regulations initiated by the government in 2021 will protect human rights in global supply chains. 2020 Germany’s green tech sector is blooming. According to the “GreenTech Atlas”, the industry is already worth 392 billion euros and is expected to double by 2030. 2021 The newly elected coalition government announces its plans to transform the German economy into a climate-neutral industrial country. The goal is the creation of a social- environmental market economy.
Germany’s role in the global economy – facts and figures T H E F I V E L A RG E S T T R A DI N G N AT IO N S (share of global exports) USA 8.1% Germany 7.8% Netherlands 3.8% Japan 3.6% China 14.7% 2020, source: UNCTAD F R E E A N D FA I R T R A D E 140 offices in 92 countries around the world. Germany’s Chambers of Commerce Abroad show that Germany is fighting for open markets and free and fair trade. 1.4 TRILLION EUROS The value of German exports in 2021.
BUSINESS AND DIGITALISATION 88 | 89 T H E F O U R M O S T I M P O RTA N T E X P O RT S EC TO R S I N 2021 (in billions of euros) Vehicles and vehicle parts Machines Chemical products 137 Computing products / Optics 102 210 196 97% of exporters are small or medium-sized enterprises. 43% of German businesses invest abroad. “Let me be absolutely clear: deglobalisation is not the answer. Of course we need to reduce some of our strategic dependen- cies. But at the same time we must make sure that much- needed diversification does not become an excuse for isolation- ism, tariff barriers and protectionism.” F E D E R A L C H A N C E L LO R O L A F S C H O L Z T H E F I V E L A RG E S T G E R M A N CO M PA N I E S (by employees globally) Volkswagen (automotive) Deutsche Post/DHL (logistics) Schwarz Gruppe (retail) Edeka (retail) Robert Bosch (electronics) 672,800 592,300 550,000 404,900 402,600 2021, source: F.A.Z., Federal Statistical Office
MEDICINE AND HEALTHCARE 5.8 million people are employed in the healthcare sys- tem in Germany. The pharmaceuticals indus- try underlined its international importance during the pandemic. From hospitals to research labs, nursing stations to medical technology factories, employers everywhere are looking for staff.
BUSINESS AND DIGITALISATION 90 | 91 is a significant economy, and source of innovations. There were around 259,000 businesses in the creative industries in 2020. The Berlin-Brandenburg region is an international hotspot for startups and the creative industries. economic HIGH-PERFORMANCE INDUSTRIES Alongside Germany’s SMEs, the country’s strength comes from the strength and in- novation of its industrial sector. Above all, Germany’s automotive industry, which employs around 800,000 people, is considered a showpiece of the “Made in Ger- many” brand. The six leading badges are Volkswagen, BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Opel (Stellantis) and the VW-owned Audi and Por- sche. These help to make the Ger- man car industry a pioneer in the transition to sustainable mobility. In order to stay competitive, Ger- man businesses are investing billions in research and develop- ment (R&D). Electrical propulsion, digital networking and assisted or even autonomous driving are megatrends in automotive trans- portation. Roughly two-thirds of SMEs and Industry 4.0 internationally Germany’s small and medium-sized businesses, known as the “Mittelstand”, are the lifeblood of the country’s economy. Despite the presence of many global players and famous ma- jor corporations, Germany’s 3.5 million small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), freelancers and self-employed professionals are the distinctive feature of the structure of the country’s economy. Over 99% of German businesses are SMEs. These are businesses with an annual turnover below 50 million euros and fewer than 500 employees. Many migrants work in SMEs, and over 800,000 people from migrant back- grounds own their own business, making migrants in Germany a major factor in the economy. Germany’s SMEs also play a major role on the inter- national stage. Globally there are 2,700 “Hidden Cham- pions”, around half of which are German SMEs. They provide highly innovative products and solutions, a close relationship with their customers and quick deci- sion-making, thanks to which they are market leaders in Europe and around the world. The creative industry, which is dominated by SMEs, has established itself in Germany’s economic structure. It is a pioneer as Ger- many transitions into a digital and knowledge-based Research that guarantees us a future: virtual reality in medical technology
cars made by German manufacturers are produced in factories abroad. The chemicals and plant and mechanical engineering sectors have long been particular strengths of the Ger- man economy. BASF was founded in 1865 and has its headquarters in Ludwigshafen. With around 118,000 employed at 366 production facilities in over 90 coun- tries around the world, BASF is one of the world’s lar- gest chemical companies. Germany’s leading plant and mechanical engineering business is also a global leader in the key sector of electronics and electrical engineer- ing. Siemens has sites in over 200 countries and is a global player which provides highly innovative solu- tions from transportation to renewables. tries, while Cologne and Hamburg are known for their ports, aviation and media industries. High per- formance high-tech centres have flourished in former East Germany, particularly the “lighthouse re- gions” of Dresden, Jena, Leipzig, Leuna and Berlin-Brandenburg. Car makers headed the list of the largest German businesses meas- ured by turnover in 2021. Volks- wagen was in first place, while Mercedes-Benz Group and BMW Group held places 3 and 5 respect- ively. ECONOMIC HUBS IN GERMANY Germany’s main economic hubs are the large metro- politan regions such as the Ruhr. The Munich and Stuttgart metropolitan areas are known for high tech and automotive manufacturing. The Rhine-Neckar re- gion is a centre of the chemicals and IT industry, while Frankfurt am Main is the financial centre. Nuremberg is a leading centre of industry and the service indus- The service industries also have a significant effect on Germany as an industrial location. Some 80% of businesses work in this sector, where they generate almost 70% of Germany’s GDP. They also provide three-quarters of all jobs, employ- ing around 30 million people.
Digitalisation maximises flexibility in manufacturing. Open-minded and innovative: networking, expertise and sharing ideas are future-proofing the German economy. ON THE WAY TO INDUSTRY 4.0 Germany is one of the world’s leading industrial nations. German businesses are highly specialised developers of complex goods, es- pecially capital goods and innov- ative production technologies. The German economy’s ability to inno- vate is considered the driving force behind the country’s economic strength. Intensive research and development activity is yielding very positive results. The Federal Government’s high-tech strategy is also a key source of momentum. This includes the creation of the Federal Agency for Disruptive In- novation (SPRIND) in 2019 and the German Agency for Transfer and Innovation (DATI) in 2021. In 2020, 106 billion euros were allocated to R&D in Germany, equivalent to over 3% of GDP, and well above the OECD average of 2.4%. BUSINESS AND DIGITALISATION 92 | 93 INNOVATION CHAMPIONS OF EUROPE Germany is considered the innovation champion of Europe. German businesses submitted around 26,000 applications to the European Patent Office in Munich in 2021 alone. In the same year, 58,600 inventions were registered with the German Patent and Trade Mark Office (DPMA). Bosch, a supplier to the automotive in- dustry, submitted the most applications, at just under 4,000. BMW were second with 1,860, followed by the Schaeffler-Group (1,800), also from the automotive in- dustry. Precisely 134,715 German patents were in force in 2021. DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION FOR INDUSTRY The economy is going through the fourth industrial revolution. Driven by the Internet, the real and virtual worlds are merging to become an “Internet of Things”. The Federal Government aims to provide support to business and academia with the development and implementation of “Industry 4.0”, with the aim of po- sitioning Germany as a leading provider of these tech- nologies. What makes Industry 4.0 different is how products are highly individualised within production systems and environments that are digital and very flexible. Industry 4.0 has been around in many factor- ies for some time now, where intelligent monitoring and decision-making processes guide and optimise businesses and entire value creation networks in near real-time. This fundamental transition of production procedures and working processes requires workers with high levels of qualifications who can act inde- pendently and autonomously where necessary. Ger- many’s unique system of dual vocational training and a rigorous strategy for ongoing professional develop- ment in the workplace are laying the groundwork for this transition.
Attractive employment market Germany's stable employment market offers attract- ive career opportunities to professionals from around the world. Germany almost achieved full employment in early 2020, with 45 million people in employment. This success is built on Germany’s strong economy, but the employment market has also been supported by tried-and-tested crisis response measures imple- mented by the government. For example, government intervention to support workers on reduced hours had already proved its worth during the 2008-2009 finan- cial crisis, and made a vital contribution to mitigating the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. Where a crisis causes a significant loss of work to businesses, the “Kurzarbeit” scheme allows employers to temporarily transfer employees to state-supported reduced hours. This helps avoid redundancies and makes it easier to restart work after the crisis. As part of creating a modern, fair and transparent em- ployment market, the Federal Government has imple- mented a number of groundbreaking projects in em- ployment policy. The legal minimum wage came into force in 2015 and is updated regularly. A minimum quota for women in leadership positions is boosting equality. Since 2016, all publicly traded businesses that are required to carry out full worker participation have had to ensure women hold a minimum of 30% of seats on their supervisory board. The regulations on pay scale uniformity ensure that employers do not apply different pay scales to the same work. another significant change is that many roles no longer need to be carried out from specific locations, along with the opportunity to work from home at least some of the time. The Covid-19 pandemic gave a huge boost to mobile work- ing, with up to a third of employ- ees now working from home at least part of the time. The Federal Government is ensuring that their rights and protections are guar- anteed, even when working away from the office. Many workers in Germany now have far more influ- ence over how they organise their working time than even a few years ago. In addition to working part time, they can use flexitime to de- cide for themselves (within certain limits) when their work day begins and ends. Employees also have the right to reduce their working hours for up to six months to allow them to care for relatives. OPPORTUNITIES FOR INTER- NATIONAL PROFESSIONALS There is an important trend in increasing mobility within the Euro pean labour market. Freedom of movement is one of the fun- damental principles of the EU, so migration within Europe is an im- portant issue for professionals, and Germany is a major destination. PLENTY OF FLEXIBILITY FOR WORKERS The world of work in Germany is going through a period of change. Digitalisation is making its mark, but Germany lacks skilled workers. Given the ongoing demographic transition, one of the most press-
BUSINESS AND DIGITALISATION 94 | 95 Skilled professionals from around the world, so new regulations and laws are making it easier for them to find work. ing challenges facing the Federal Government is ensuring there are enough skilled workers for Ger- many’s economy. According to the Association of German Chambers of Commerce and Industry (DIHK), over half of businesses were not able to fill vacancies in 2021 due to a lack of suitable applicants. This was a particular issue for the care sector and the skilled crafts and trades, as well as engineering and technical careers. Germany has made long-term preparations to support the mi- gration of skilled workers. An important element in this is the Skilled Immigration Act for qualified professionals, which has been in force since 1 March 2020. The Act makes it easier for skilled workers from countries outside the EU to access the German labour market. Previously, this was only possible for work- ers with academic qualifications. Since 2020 this ac- cess has also been open to workers who have gained a vocational qualification abroad. Given the unique features and high standards of Germany’s dual vo- cational training system, the Federal Government is using the Skilled Immigration Act to improve op- portunities for workers to come to Germany to gain qualifications. It is now possible for people who want to undertake training or an apprenticeship to get a residence permit.
Education and research T H R I V I N G R E S E A RC H LO C AT IO N Germany’s education and university system enjoys an outstanding repu- tation on the international stage. German research breaks new ground and Germany’s vocational training system serves as a model for many other countries. A summary. A M BI T IO U S C U T T I N G-E D G E R E S E A RC H Germany is a nation of innovation. Along with Germany’s higher educa- tion institutions, the four major non-university research institutes form the backbone of Germany’s research system. DY N A M IC H IG H E R E D U C AT IO N S EC TO R Germany’s higher education institutions are the heart of the higher edu- cation system. Their varied range of courses and research, international orientation and outstanding teaching sets them apart. M A K I N G A DI F F E R E N C E T H RO U G H S C I E N C E DI P LO M AC Y For German foreign policy, protecting and promoting academic freedom is an essential responsibility. Germany is therefore focusing on exchange and networking. D UA L VO C AT IO N A L T R A I N I N G SYS T E M Germany’s two-track vocational training system combines theory and practice. It is a central pillar of the education system in Germany. AT T R AC T I V E S C H O O L SYS T E M Germany’s excellent school system opens up equal opportunities for everyone. Primary responsibility for schools lies with the federal states.
In 2020, Germany spent 241 billion euros on education, research and academia. Germany is in the top 10countries in the world for innovation. E D U C AT I O N A N D R E S E A R C H 7 Facts Around 10,800,000 pupils attend schools in Germany. Germany spends an average of 14,200 US DOLLARS per pupil, above the OECD average of 11,800 dollars. The vaccine developed jointly by Biontech from Germany and Pfizer from the US was the 1st COVID-19 VACCINE to be approved in the US and the European Union. 420 HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS provide opportunities for students in Germany to pursue their studies. Germany’s oldest university is the University of Heidelberg. – It was founded in 1386.
EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 98 | 99 Thriving higher education location Germany stands out for the breadth of its vocational and higher education system and the world-leading research carried out here. Germany enjoys a reputation around the world for its strength in innovation and wide-ranging academic and research system. The country’s 420 higher edu- cation institutions are the foundation of this success. Industrial research forms another key element in Ger- many’s status as a higher education location. One sign of this strength is that Germany is among the world’s leading nations in terms of numbers of patent appli- cations. Germany’s four major non-university research institutes are the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, the Helm- holtz Association, the Leibniz Association and the Max Planck Society. They enjoy an excellent international reputation and play a key role in Germany's scientific and academic success. Germany is investing heavily in research and science so as to en- sure this innovative energy con- tinues and flourishes. This puts the Fed eral Republic among a lead- ing group of nations that invest around 3% of GDP annually in re- search and development. The aim is for this to rise to at least 3.5% of all state expenditure by 2025. to its FROM VOCATIONAL TRAINING TO WORLD LEADING RESEARCH Compared international competitors, Germany’s education system is very well adapted to the needs of the labour market, not just in the context of cutting-edge research. Over 80% of adults hold an “Abitur” (the general higher edu cation entrance diploma) or a vocational qualification, putting Germany above the average for OECD countries. Germany’s dual system of vocational education and training has long been a key element of this and enjoys an ex- cellent reputation internationally. The number of university students has risen sharply in recent years. In response, the Federal and state governments adopted the Higher Education Pact 2020 which pro- vides funding for more places on university courses. Building on this, Federal and state govern- ments have implemented a “future agreement” to improve conditions The dual vocational training system combines theory and practice.
for students and teaching quality in the long-term. The Federal Government’s Excel- lence Strategy supports pioneering research at universities. The Strat- egy funds Clusters of Excellence for targeted areas of research and Universities of Excellence, which are acknowledged internationally as beacons of outstanding higher education. Over 500 million euros are available for the entire pro- gramme each year. system, The Federal Government aims to use its Future Strategy Research as an effective way of consolidating re- sources. As part of this, the govern- ment has defined key “future fields”. These include developing modern technologies for competitive and climate-neutral industry, creating a sustainable agricultural and food production strengthen- ing technological sovereignty, and developing a resilient healthcare system that makes use of the op- portunities from biotech and med- ical processes. The development of the first mRNA Covid-19 vaccine is considered a paradigm of success- ful state funding. The vaccine was developed by the Mainz-based firm Biontech, whose founders, Özlem Türeci and Uğur Şahin, also teach at the University of Mainz. The state provided substantial support for vaccine development at Biontech and other centres. Researchers in Germany work with international networks. Students from abroad account for 11% of all stu- dents in Germany. Most of them come from the Asia and Pacific region, followed by North Africa, the Middle East and Western Europe.
EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 100 | 101 expanding their partnerships around the world. Ger- many’s support for its higher education institutions includes the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, which are funded by the Federal Foreign Office. Schol- arship programmes are an essential element of Ger- many's foreign academic and higher education policy. These provide assistance to foreign students, academ- ics and researchers for stays in Germany. Germany also funds higher education partnerships around the world. Over 37,000 agreements exist between higher education institutions in Germany and partners in over 150 countries. The University of Leipzig stands for tradition and innovation. INTERNATIONAL OUTLOOK German higher education and research institutions place great importance on maintaining an international outlook. Following the “Bologna process” of Europe- an higher education reform, the majority of university courses in Germany have been restructured as bachelor's and master’s degrees, which have become the inter- national standard. Many courses, particularly at master’s level, are offered in a foreign language, pri- marily in English. For many years Germany has been considered the most popular country outside English-speaking countries for international stu- dents. Around 1 in 10 of Germany’s approximately 3 million students come from abroad. Unlike many other countries, students pay no or only very limited fees to study at public higher education insti- tutions in Germany (with the ex- ception of certain states such as Baden-Wurttemberg). Germany’s higher education and research in- stitutions are also very attractive for international staff. For ex ample. At the four major non-universi- ty research institutes, over 25% of staff come from abroad. Networking with international partners is also very important to German higher education in- stitutions, which are continually
Ambitious cutting-edge research Science and research enjoy a high profile in Germany. Businesses and politicians have continually increased budgets for scientific activities in recent years. In 2020, spending on research accounted for 3.13% of Germany’s GPD. The intention is for this to rise to 3.5% by 2025. This puts Germany among a leading group of nations that spend more than 3% of GDP on research and development (R&D). Germany also ranks fourth internationally among the world’s most research-in- tensive economies. In 2020, spending on R&D in Ger- many amounted to just under 107 billion euros. The business sector spent 71 billion euros, with higher education institutions and non-university research institutes accounting for 19.3 and 15.6 billion euros respectively. The strength of cutting-edge research in Germany is reflected in the number of publications produced by researchers. In the 2022 “Nature Index”, which evalu- ates the publication performance of research and higher education institutions, Germany was ranked highest in Europe. Against its international competi- tors, Germany is ranked third, behind the front run- ners US and China. HIGH-TECH STRATEGY PROMOTES INNOVATION In 2006 Germany developed a unique tool in the form of its High-Tech Strategy. Since then, High-Tech Strat- egy research projects have prompted a raft of innov- ations – from energy-saving LED bulbs to a tissue-engineered heart valve. The High-Tech Strategy 2025 was adopted in 2018 and focuses on seven priority areas: health and care, sustainability, climate pro- tection and energy, mobility, town and country, security, and business and work 4.0. The specific goals of the High-Tech Strategy 2025 in- clude the fight against cancer, re- ducing plastic in the environment, and advancing greenhouse gas neutrality in the industrial sector. NON-UNIVERSITY RESEARCH INSTITUTES There are around 1,000 publicly funded research institutes in Ger- many. Along with Germany’s higher education institutions, the four major non-university re- search institutes form the back- bone of Germany’s research sys- tem. The Max Planck Society (MPG), founded in 1948, is the lead- ing non-university centre for fun- damental research into the natural, biological and social sciences and humanities. Around 7,000 scien- tists and researchers, 3,400 PhD students and 2,200 visiting re- searchers work at the Max Planck Society’s 86 institutes and research institutes, some of which are locat- ed outside Germany. Over half (54.6%) of the academics and re- searchers are foreign citizens. Over 20 Nobel Prizes have been awarded to researchers from the Max Planck Society since its foundation.
EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 102 | 103 transfer towards policymakers, businesses and the general public. As Europe’s largest research funding association, the German Research Foundation (DFG) is responsible for funding science, academia and research. The DFG’s headquarters are in Bonn, and it also maintains offices in India, Japan, Latin America and North America, as well as running the Sino-German Center for Research Promotion in Beijing (CDZ). The DFG promotes co- operation between researchers in Germany and their colleagues abroad, particularly (but by no means exclu- sively) within the European Research Area. Many pioneering innovations have been developed in Germany. The Helmholtz Association con- ducts pioneering research in six main fields: energy, earth and envir onment, health, information, materials, and aeronautics, space and transport. The Helmholtz So- ciety is Germany’s largest research organisation, with over 43,000 peo- ple working at its 19 centres, in- cluding the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). The Society plans to set up a new centre for gerontology research. The Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft has 76 institutes and research institu- tions across the whole country, and is considered the largest institution for application-oriented develop- ment in Europe. Its key research areas include health and the envir- onment, mobility and transport, and energy and fuels. With eight Fraunhofer affiliates in Europe, North America, South America and Asia, numerous Representative Of- fices and Senior Advisors, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft has a presence in many countries around the world. The Leibniz Association brings to- gether 96 independent research institutes, with research interests ranging from the natural sciences, engineering and environmental sciences to aerospace engineering, economics, the social sciences, and the humanities. One overarching priority for the Association’s 11,700 or so researchers is knowledge
C U T T I N G-E D G E R E S E A RC H 148 million euros in funding is awarded to ten Uni- versities of Excellence and the Berlin Uni- versity Alliance each year. These institutions were selected to receive seven years of fund- ing through the Excellence Strategy, through which federal and state governments support cutting-edge research at universities.
EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 104 | 105 Dynamic higher education sector Germany has a remarkably diverse higher education sector. It includes famous universities in major cities like Berlin and Munich, yet outstanding higher educa- tion institutions can also be found in Aachen, Heidel- berg and Karlsruhe. Medium-sized universities with a strong focus on research and smaller institution with an outstanding reputation form the nucleus of the academic world. Many German universities feature in international rankings, with 9 German universities in the top 200 in the Shanghai Rankings, 11 in the QS World University Rankings and 22 in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. The universities of Munich and Heidelberg perform particularly well. According to data from the German Rectors’ Confer- ence (HRK) in 2021 students in Germany could choose from 420 higher education institutions (120 uni- versities, 243 universities of applied sciences, and 57 academies of music and art). These institutions offer a total of 20,593 degree courses. Funding for 272 higher education institutions is provided by the state, 38 by the church and 110 are funded privately. HIGH STANDARDS AND FOCUSED ON PRACTICE In Germany there are essentially three types of higher education institution: universities, universities of ap- plied sciences, and academies of art, film and music. They differ in terms of their structure and purpose. While traditional universities offer a broad range of subjects, technical universities (TU), focus on funda- mental research in engineering and the natural sciences. In 2006 the nine leading technical univer- sities formed the TU9 Initiative. The universities regard them- selves not only as teaching insti- tutes but as research centres too, and as such still embody Wilhelm von Humboldt’s educational ideal of the unity of research and teaching. The universities’ prima- ry objective is to nurture the next generation of academics and re- searchers, to teach academically robust specialist knowledge, and to train academics to work and re- search independently. The 243 universities of applied science are a unique feature of the German higher education sys- tem through their strong focus on practical applications. Some re- markable social and technological innovations have been achieved at universities of applied science and at smaller and medium-sized universities. In order to provide targeted support to help transfer these innovations into business, the Federal Government set up the German higher education institutions are known for their high standards of teaching and the wide range of subjects they offer.
German Agency for Transfer and Innovation (DATI), which was provided with initial funding of 15 million euros for this purpose. The aim is to give an additional boost to the startup culture at German higher educa- tion institutions. INCREASING NUMBERS OF STUDENTS University education is on the rise in Germany. In 2005, 37% of young people enrolled on a university course, but by 2021 that figure had risen to 52%. The Federal Training Assistance Act (BAföG) enables young people to complete a degree course independently of their fam- ily’s financial situation In the 2021/2022 winter semes- ter there were around 2.9 million students enrolled at higher education institutions. Federal and state govern- ments are joining forces to respond to the increasing numbers of students. In late 2014, as part of the Higher Education Pact 2020, they approved funding for up to 760,000 additional university places in the subsequent years. For the entire duration of the Higher Education Pact from 2007 to 2023, the Federal Government is pro- viding 20.2 billion euros, and the states 18.3 billion euros. EXCELLENCE AND INTERNATIONALISATION With the Excellence Initiative, the Federal Government and the indi- vidual Bundesländer are giving a boost to cutting-edge research at universities. The Initiative funds Clusters of Excellence in specific fields of research as well as so- called Universities of Excellence. It follows on from the previous Ex- cellence Initiative of 2005 to 2017, when the Federal Government and the states provided particularly outstanding research projects and facilities with funding worth a to- tal of 4.6 billion euros. The Excel- lence Initiative consists of two parts. Through the Clusters of Ex- cellence, internationally competi- tive fields of research at uni versities are funded on a project-by-project M I L E S TO N E S 1995 Under the leadership of Karlheinz Brandenburg, a mathematician and elec- trical engineer, a team at the Fraunhofer Institute in Erlangen invents the MP3 audio compression process, which is a global standard today. 2005 Universities are invited to apply for the Excellence Initiative. The Research and Innovation Pact funds the non-university research institutes. The federal and state gov- ernments agree the first Higher Education Pact in 2007. 2008 Nine years after the discov- ery of the giant magnet- oresistance effect, which paves the way for gigabyte hard discs the scientists Peter Grünberg (Germany) and Albert Fert (France) are awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics.
EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 106 | 107 facilitate basis. These clusters interdisciplinary collaboration among academics working on a specific research objective. A total of 57 Clusters of Excellence were selected for the first round of fund- ing, which lasts for seven years and commenced in 2019. Total funding for all Clusters of Excellence each year is worth 385 million euros. Universities involved in at least two Clusters of Excellence can use the title “University of Excellence”. For a period of seven years from the end of 2019, ten Universities of Excellence throughout Germany and the Berlin University Alliance, which comprises the Freie Univer- sität, the Humboldt-Universität, the Technische Universität and the Charité University Hospital, are re- ceiving total funding of around 148 million euros each year. GLOBAL NETWORKS AND EXPERIENCE ABROAD German higher education institutions have a strong international focus. The German Rectors’ Confer- ence has identified more than 37,000 international co operation agreements with partner institutions in more than 150 countries. Many of these partnerships include programmes where students can achieve dou- ble degrees. Many higher education institutions are involved in the development of German study cours- es and the setting up of higher education institutions based on the German model, such as those in China, Egypt, Hungary, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Oman, Singapore, Vietnam and Turkey. Funding is also being provided to promote inter- national mobility for German students, with around 134,000 completing a stay abroad in 2021. Scholarships such as the Erasmus+ programme support these valu- able study visits. 2014 Stefan Hell, director of the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, is jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry along with two US scien- tists for their work on super-resolved fluores- cence microscopy. 2015 The conversion of German degree courses to bach- elor's and master's degree programmes is largely complete: 90% of courses have been transferred. Courses in medicine and law, which are subject to special regulations, remain an exception. 2020 Less than a year after the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, the USA and the EU issue initial approvals for a vaccine against the virus. The vaccine was developed by the German Biontech firm, working in collaboration with Pfizer. The vaccine saves millions of human lives.
Making a difference through science diplomacy Academic mobility and academic partnerships are becoming ever more important, including as part of a sustainable German foreign policy. German science diplomacy is an active force in shaping these networks and campaigns for the freedom of academia and re- search around the world. Ultimately, the only way to overcome global challenges such as peace, climate change and pandemics is by working together with international partners. SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMMES AND ACADEMIC COOPERATION Scholarship programmes form a key plank of German science and higher education policy. Such scholar- ships provide funding for foreign students and re- searchers to visit Germany. As part of this, the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation award scholarships and fund academic programmes. They work closely with Germany’s diplomatic missions abroad and develop funding projects such as the “Leadership for Africa” scholarship programme. This pro- gramme makes it possible for tal- ented young people from countries that take in large numbers of refu- gees to study for master's degrees in Germany. to Germany also funds higher edu- cation partnerships around the world through the scholarship programme. According the Higher Education Compass, in 2021 there were around 37,000 partnership agreements with 5,400 partner institutions in over 150 countries. These cooperation agreements have been the gen esis for double degree programmes and binational higher education institutions abroad, such as DKU Deutsch-Kasachische Universität in Almaty, the German University in Cairo and the Turkish-German University in Istanbul. S C I E N C E O P E N TO T H E WO R L D 55,176 international researchers and academics were working at German higher education institutions in 2020. Most of these (34.5 %) came from Western Europe, while 20 % came from the Asia and Pacific region. The Federal Government provides a range of programmes to support the mobility of German and inter- national academics. Beacons of German academic cooperation with partner coun- tries include the DAAD’s Global Centres for Climate and Environ- ment and Centres of Excellence, and the Humboldt Research Hubs cen- tres serve as platforms for ac- ademics and other countries to share ideas and collaborate on global challenges, with a particular focus on working in Africa. These from Germany
EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 108 | 109 with academics from the Global South. STRENGTHENING ACADEMIC FREEDOM Academic protection programmes are a major priority for German science diplomacy. One example is the Philipp Schwartz Initiative, which has been administered by the Humboldt Foundation since 2015. It is a special programme to help at-risk academics and re- searchers to assimilate and inte- grate in Germany. The Federal Government also ac- knowledges its key responsibility to give young people living through crises and in conflict zones the prospect of gaining academic and scientific training. Germany provides support and services to refugees around the world. This eases the burden on those coun- tries that are the first port of call for refugees, while also giving refugees the prospect of finding employment and reducing secondary migration. For 30 years the Albert Einstein German Academic Refugee Initiative (DAFI), which is funded by the Federal Foreign Office, has worked with the UNHCR to help refugees access higher education in their countries of first arrival. GERMANY – RESEARCH AND INNOVATION HUB Germany is a high-tech nation, so promoting inter- national partnerships is an essential element of all strategic future planning. As a “shop window” and long-term presence for German academic and scien- tific organisations, the German Centres for Research and Innovation work in cities such as New York, Tokyo, Sao Paolo and New Delhi to promote and network on behalf of Germany as a nation of innovation. Learning from one other, working together: Germany is committed to international and interdisciplinary cooperation across all academic disciplines.
Education and research – facts and figures 750 MILLION EUROS were allocated by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research for a special programme to develop and produce vaccines in Germany follow- ing the Covid-19 pandemic. A further 350 million euros were provided to the international vaccine initiative CEPI. Investment in research and development will rise to 3.5% of GDP by 2025. PATENTS FOR GLOBAL MARKETS: GERMANY, EUROPEAN UNION, JAPAN AND THE US Global market patents1 per million inhabitants 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1995 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 Germany European Union Japan United States 1) Inventions registered with the European Patent Office or with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). Source: Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 110 | 111 HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS IN GERMANY Law, economics and social sciences 38.7% Mathematics and natural sciences 10.7% Agricultural, forestry, and food sciences, veterinary medicine 2.2% Humanities 10.8% 2021/2022 winter semester, source: Federal Statistical Office “As a country we may be poor in natural resource but we are rich in ideas – our future is in the sciences, from climate change to digitalisation and even social and philosoph- ical questions.” F R A N K-WA LT E R S T E I N M E I E R, F E D E R A L P R E S I D E N T S U BJ EC T G RO U P S Medicine and health sciences 6.7% Sport 1.1 % Engineering 26.4% Art and art history 3.4% EXASCALE SUPERCOMPUTING Europe’s first exascale supercomputer will have computing power equivalent to over 5 million modern laptops. Forschungszentrum Jülich will be home to the new supercomputer.
An example to the world: the German dual model of vocational training is in demand in many countries and enjoys widespread popularity. Dual vocational training What makes Germany’s dual system of education and training different is the way it combines theory and practice. Germany’s low rate of youth unemployment compared to its European peers is thanks in part to this system. The dual system of education and training differs from purely classroom-based learning that represents the entry point into working life in many countries. Students spend three to four days a week learning the practical elem- ents of a profession in the work- place, with specialist theoretical teaching at vocational college on the other day(s). It generally takes between two and three-and-a-half years to complete dual vocational training, and trainees are paid dur- ing this time. Around a million young people in Germany are training on officially recognised training programmes. In 2022, they were able to choose
EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 112 | 113 from 324 different careers. In 2021, some 467,000 people signed new dual vocational training contracts. Vocational education in Germany is supported by many stakeholders who also ensure training is high quality. For example, chambers of commerce offer advice to firms providing on-the-job training and as- sess their facilities, while also organising assessments and examinations. Trade unions and employers’ asso- ciations negotiate the remuneration for trainees and help define standards for professional training. The state funds and oversees the public vocational college system. It also helps unemployed and disadvantaged young people to get into training. THE GERMAN MODEL – ATTRACTING INTEREST AROUND THE WORLD The integration of theoretical knowledge and prac tical professional experience is in great demand among many companies. There is also great international in- terest in the system, and many countries are currently adapting the German dual vocational training system. In response to high levels of demand, the Federal Gov- ernment has set up the German Office for Internation- al Cooperation in Vocational Education and Training (GOVET) as a central point of contact. GOVET handles all inquiries about the German vo- cational training system, many of which come from abroad. As part of its work with partners around the world, the Federal Government supports partner countries with developing their own vocational train- ing systems, thereby improving opportunities for young people to become qualified in a profession. The framework for this is the Federal Government’s strat- egy for international cooperation on vocational edu- cation and training, which was adopted in 2013 and updated in 2019. There are no formal requirements to start dual vocational training. Firms determine for themselves what prior educational attain- ments their applicants should possess.
Education for all children: attending a state school in Germany is free. Attractive school system The 16 federal states are primarily responsible for the school system. This is why there are different school systems, curricula and types of schools across Ger- many. The Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany (KMK) guarantees the conformity or comparability of the education pro- grammes and the qualifications awarded. In the 2021-2022 academic year 11 million pupils at- tended the 40,000 general education and vocation- al schools, with 798,000 teachers. Furthermore, just under a million pupils attend the roughly 5,800 general and voca- tional private schools. In general, school attendance is compulsory for all children from the age of six for a nine-year period. At the same time ear- ly-years education and how it con- nects with primary schooling is a high-priority issue in education policy. Around 20,000 whole-day
EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 114 | 115 all children attend a primary school, which lasts from Year 1 to 4 (Years 1 to 6 in Berlin and Brandenburg). After primary school, students pursue one of three standard forms of secondary education: a non-selective “Hauptschule”, which teaches up to level 2 qualifications (Years 5 to 9 or 10); a “Realschule” (Years 5 to 10) where students attain the “Mittlere Reife” (a level 2 qualifica- tion); or a selective grammar school (Years 5 to 12 or 13) to attain a general higher education entrance diploma or Abitur. Some schools provide a single form of second- ary education, while others combine two or three (as in the case of comprehensive “Gesamtschulen”), making it easier to switch between different forms. The names of these types of school vary depending on the state; only grammar schools (“Gymnasium”) are known as such in all states. In 2021 around 395,000 school students achieved higher education entrance diplomas. Children with special educational needs can attend separate schools that are able to cater for their specific needs. Nevertheless, the aim is for it to become standard for children with and without disabilities to learn together, in line with the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The Federal Govern- ment is paying particular attention to providing bet- ter educational opportunities to children and young people, regardless of their parents’ social situation. GERMAN SCHOOLS ABROAD The 137 German schools abroad provide an excellent education in 70 countries. Around 84,000 students learn together at these schools, around 23,000 of which speak German as their first language. Most of the schools are privately funded, but they receive finan- cial and staffing support from the Central Agency for German Schools Abroad (ZfA). Since 2008, the PASCH initiative (“Schools: Partners for the Future”), which is coordinated by the Federal Foreign Office, has been working with the ZfA and the Goethe-Institut to create an even larger network of German students. It con- nects almost 2,000 schools around the world, with over 600,000 students learning German. schools now have a firm place in the education system. It is expected that studying at these schools will improve equality of opportunity, particularly for children from edu- cationally deprived backgrounds. FREE SCHOOLING It costs nothing to attend a state school in Germany. The school system is divided into three levels: primary education and secondary education levels I and II. As a rule,
Diverse society E N R IC H E D BY DI V E R S I T Y People in Germany are free to live their own lives, no matter where they come from or what they want to achieve. A summary. AC T I V E C I V I L S O C I E T Y Millions of Germans support voluntary causes and organisations in their free time. Charities are becoming an increasingly important part of civil society. DI V E R S E WAYS O F L I F E Many different forms of relationship and family units shape German soci- ety. The Federal Government is providing targeted support to help people balance their careers and family life, as well as supporting the rights of queer persons. F R E E D O M O F R E L IG IO N Freedom of religion is enshrined in Germany's Basic Law. Germany's re- ligious landscape is diverse, but society is becoming increasingly secular. S T RO N G W E L FA R E S TAT E Germany protects its citizens against threats to critical aspects of their lives. A key element of this is the tightly-woven social network of insur- ance provided by the state. FA M I L I E S A N D EQ UA L I T Y The Federal Government is strengthening the role played by women in all areas of public and private life, and is standing up for families.
Around 5.3 to 5.6 million Muslims live in Germany. D I V E R S E S O C I E T Y 7 Facts 51%of the German population is a member of one of the two main Christian denominations. Public expenditure on social security is worth OVER 1 TRILLION EUROS. 52% of first-year students are women. There are roughly 100 JEWISH COMMUNITIES in Germany, which have been represented by the Central Council of Jews in Germany since 1950. 22.3 million PEOPLE from migrant backgrounds live in Germany. There were around 65,000 married couples same-sex in Germany at the end of 2021.
DIVERSE SOCIETY 118 | 119 Enriched by diversity People from all around the world live to- gether in Germany, bringing together highly diverse beliefs, ideals and aspirations. Promoting equality for all citizens is a matter of prime importance to the Federal Government. The 83 million people who live in Germany have wide- ly differing attitudes and approaches to how they live their lives. Some live as part of a family, in a long-term relationship or with flatmates. They practise different religions, hold different political views and have dif- ferent social expectations. Many come from migrant backgrounds. Each year, hundreds of thousands of people come to Germany to work or study, and refu- gees find a new home here. What they all have in com- mon is that they live in freedom and can fulfil their hopes and dreams as they wish. The Federal Govern- ment works on a range of levels to ensure everyone living in Germany can live in freedom and according to their own choices and values. MODERN NATION OF IMMIGRATION Germany is a modern country with an active and orderly government, which is a popular destination for immigrants. The government wants to keep migration to realis- tic levels and ensure it meets Ger- many’s future needs. It plans to reduce irregular migration and fa- cilitate migration through regular channels. Germany takes humani- tarian responsibility for refugees and asylum seekers, such as people fleeing regions affected by crises and conflicts. Just under 200,000 asylum applications were submit- ted to the Federal Office for Migra- tion and Refugees (BAMF) in 2021. One of the Federal Government’s Germany is committed to diversity and acceptance.
key priorities is to improve living conditions for people so they do not have to leave their home coun- tries. Germany has set in motion numerous initiatives to promote political, economic and social sta- bility in these countries and to cre- ate security. All immigrants and their relatives who are living permanently and legally in Germany are actively in- cluded in German society and have a right to integration services pro- vided by the Federal Government. These include language and inte- gration courses which are aimed at making it easier to settle into Ger- man society. Migrants who plan to stay in Germany for the longer term will be able to access the la- bour market quickly. In addition to this, promoting future-orient- ed and needs-based migration of skilled workers from around the world is a priority for the Federal Government. There are over 22 million people who come from migrant back- grounds. They make a vital contri- bution to the development of Ger- many’s society and economy, as well as making Germany a diverse nation. “MULTI-COLOURED GERMANY” Promoting equality for all citizens across many levels of society is a Many programmes are improving the conditions faced by families. “One of our most pressing tasks as a government is to take decisive action to improve social justice.” Federal Family Minister Lisa Paus
DIVERSE SOCIETY 120 | 121 major issue in Germany. Germany is fully committed to the accept- ance of diversity. For this reason, the Federal Government supports LGBTIQ rights (lesbian, gay, bi-, trans, intersex, queer) and is fight- ing to end discrimination. The gov- ernment has therefore established the office of a Commissioner for the Acceptance of Sexual and Gen- der Diversity. TARGETED SUPPORT FOR FAMLIES Many people live in family units in Germany, and there were a to- tal of around 11.6 million families in 2021. Supporting and assisting families is a key objective of Ger- man family policy. The Federal Government is committed to pro- viding targeted support to help people balance their careers and family lives, as well as financial se- curity and high-quality childcare. This means all parents can claim up to three years’ maternity or pa- ternity leave to care for and bring up their offspring. The state also pays a parental al- lowance which compensates for lost earnings when parents are looking after their child after the birth. Families can access addition- al financial support such as child benefits, supplementary child sup- port for disadvantaged parents, and maternity benefits. It is increasingly the case that starting a family means mothers must interrupt their careers. Overall, women are more likely than men to suffer discrimination in the labour market. A range of employment laws have been passed to improve transparency around pay and to increase the number of women in senior positions, including through the use of quotas. Single and sep- arated parents achieve additional targeted support such as tax credits or advance child support payments where necessary. WELFARE STATE FOR EVERYONE Germany is a welfare state. It is committed to econom- ic security and social justice for all its citizens. In 2021 Germany spent 1.16 trillion euros, the equivalent of 32.5% of GDP, on health, welfare, unemployment and related spending. The combination of several different forms of insur- ance is a key element of the welfare state. State-pro- vided insurance for health, pensions, accidents, nurs- ing care and unemployment protects members of the public against threats to critical aspects of their lives. Moreover, a basic income and tax credits help pension- ers, mothers, families and those permanently unable to work. The Federal Government is enhancing the basic income system through the introduction of the Citi- zens’ Basic Income scheme. ACTIVE AND COMMITTED CITIZENS Germany’s thriving civil society is an important pillar of social coexistence and cohesion. German citizens are certainly committed and active. Around 29 million people (around 40% of the population) volunteer in their free time to support areas such as sport, culture, music, environmentalism and conservation, social is- sues and education. By volunteering they make a ma- jor contribution to promoting diversity, justice and freedom in Germany.
German society is open and colourful. Around 22.3 million people come from migrant backgrounds. Migration and integration Germany has become a popular destination for mi- grants. There are 22.3 million people from migrant backgrounds now living here. Germany is not only the most popular destination for migrants with- in the EU but has also moved to the top of the in- ternational rankings. In recent years, immigration to Germany has risen faster than for any other of the 38 members of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The Federal Government is increasing rates of immigra- tion for skilled professionals from around the world. At the same time, Germany is facing up to its humanitarian responsibility for refugees and asylum seekers who may be fleeing crises or conflict regions. MANY PEOPLE FROM MIGRANT BACKGROUNDS In 2021 there were 10.9 million
DIVERSE SOCIETY 122 | 123 Germans who were repatriated to Germany constitute another significant group. The other people from mi- grant backgrounds are naturalised. In 2021 alone, some 131,600 foreign citizens were naturalised. PROTECTING REFUGEES, PREVENTING PEOPLE FROM BECOMING REFUGEES Germany stands by its international commitments to protect refugees. Around the world it is working to combat the factors that cause people to become refugees. In 2015 the number of foreign migrants to Germany was higher than ever, at 2 million people. Many of these came to seek asylum, fleeing wars and conflicts such as those in Syria and Iraq. In 2021, there were 190,800 asylum applications. The Federal Government is committed to address- ing the factors that cause people to become refugees and to reducing irregular migration. It is also driving forward the development and management of migra- tion processes. This work includes repatriating those people who have no prospects of staying in Germany, promoting reintegration into countries of origin, and supporting transit countries and host countries. As part of increased efforts to shape the future of migra- tion, Germany is also seeking partnership agreements with countries of origin. In addition the Federal Gov- ernment is campaigning for fundamental reform of the EU asylum system with the aim of achieving fair distribution and even-handed standards in asylum processes. At the same time, Germany intends to open up new opportunities, whereby well integrated young people will have the opportunity to gain permanent residence after three years. People who have lived in Germany holders of foreign passports living in Germany. Around 22.3 million persons are from migrant back- grounds. This group includes mi- grants, foreign citizens born in Germany, and people with one or more parents who came to Ger- many as migrants. This group makes up roughly a quarter of the total population. Around 11.8 mil- lion people from migrant back- grounds hold German passports. Over half of them have been Ger- man citizens from birth. Ethnic
for five years and satisfy certain requirements receive a conditional one-year residence permit during which time they can meet the additional requirements for permanent residence. SKILLED WORKER MIGRATION FROM THIRD COUNTRIES Migrants make a significant contribution to Germa- ny’s social and economic development. The growing need for skilled workers is attracting well qualified people from abroad. The Federal Government wants to facili tate increased migration, not least to counteract the shortage of skilled workers which is due to demo- graphic change. In addition to boosting the activation of Germany's own pool of potential skilled workers and encour- aging greater immigration from EU member states, the Federal Government sees the migration of skilled workers from third countries as a means of counter- acting demographic change and helping ensure there are enough skilled workers. Germany also intends to speed up visa approvals and conduct more of the pro- cess digitally. SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATION Integration is a priority area for German policymakers and is con- sidered a responsibility for the whole of society. Integration is not just something that society offers: it also requires that migrants com- mit to making an effort themselves. Integration can only succeed if it is a mutual process. According to the Residence Act, those foreigners who legally live long-term on Ger- man territory have a right to access federal integration services. These services include language lessons, integration in training, work, and education, as well as social integra- tion. The goal is to enable these per- sons to be part of and play a part in society. The core element is an in- tegration course consisting of lan- guage lessons and an orientation course. The Federal Government is also planning to increase funding M I L E S TO N E S 1955 Strong economic growth leads to a shortage of workers in Germany in the mid-1950s. Recruitment agreements with Italy, Spain, Greece, Turkey, Morocco, Portugal and Yugoslavia are signed in response. 1964 The millionth “Gast- arbeiter” is welcomed to Germany. Recruitment of these migrant workers comes to an end with the 1973 oil crisis. By this point, around four million foreign people live in Germany. 1990 The fall of the Iron Curtain in 1990 and the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia prompt a sharp increase in migration. A further 400,000 ethnic Germans move to Germany from central and eastern Europe.
DIVERSE SOCIETY 124 | 125 for business German courses. The Federal Government also aims to boost participation in education, particularly among young foreign citizens. Around a third of 20–34 year old foreign adults do not gain a vocational qualification. Reforms to citizenship laws in 2014 introduced dual citizenship. For people who were born to foreign parents after 1990 and who grew up in Germany, this removed the obligation to renounce either their German or their parents’ national- ity. Previously, they had only been allowed to keep both nationalities until they turned 23. FINANCIAL SECURITY FOR STUDENTS AND TRAINEES Migrants who are expecting to re- main in Germany for the longer term should be able to get a job or start vocational training quickly. To this end, the Federal Government introduced legislation in 2019 to promote education and employment for foreigners. Anyone with good prospects of remaining in the country can now start working more quickly. The law also improved the pro- vision of language courses and other integration ser- vices. In 2019 the Federal Government also changed the rules governing benefits for asylum-seekers. The changes are aimed at preventing refugees from hav- ing to drop out of training courses or university for financial reasons. The Federal Government is also re- moving bureaucratic obstacles preventing access to healthcare. Volunteering plays a major role in supporting integra- tion, both through the work of many volunteers who offer courses and everyday support to refugees and migrants, and also migrants who provide voluntary services themselves. Volunteering is likewise encour- aged within the framework of the amended Asylum Seekers’ Benefits Act. 1997 The number of asylum seekers coming to Germany has been growing since the mid-1980s. The 1997 Dublin Regulation creates rules governing the responsibil- ity for processing asylum seekers by EU states. 2014 Dual citizenship is introduced. Under certain conditions, children born to foreign parents who grew up in Germany must no longer renounce one of their citizenships. 2020 Legislation to promote migration by skilled workers comes into force. It aims to increase the migration of qualified foreign profession- als to Germany. The Federal Government is planning further developments to immigration laws.
Diverse ways of life New forms of relationships and family units shape German society. Yet in spite of the individualised and highly mobile world of the 21st century, the family still retains a key role. According to a study by Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach conducted in 2019, more than three quarters of the population (77%) said their family was the most important thing in their life. At the same time, ideas are changing about what a family typically looks like. M A R R I AG E F O R A L L This was a milestone for equality: in June 2017 a law came into force in Germany that allowed gay couples to marry. Previously, same-sex couples had only been allowed to register civil partnerships, which were similar to marriages. “Marriage for all” opened up marriage to gay couples in Germany, mark- ing a major step forward in equality for gay and lesbian people. Since the introduction of “marriage for all”, as of the end of 2021, 65,600 same-sex couples have married in Germany. Less than half the people in Ger- many live as part of a family unit. Despite the decline of traditional family structures, in 2021 mar- ried couples with children under 18 constituted the most common family form, making up around 70% of family units. There were 357,800 divorces in 2021. Just over one in three marriages ends in di- vorce. There were around 42,000 new marriages between German and foreign citizens in 2021. The number of children born to cohabiting unmarried parents is growing significantly. In 2019, fam- ilies with unmarried parents ac- counted for 10% of the 8.2 million families with children under 18, double the figure for 1999. There are also 2.6 million single parents, most of whom are women. Single parents are particularly at risk of experiencing poverty and around 38% receive state benefits. MORE SAME-SEX PARTNERSHIPS In 2019, around 142,000 gay couples were living together in Germany, an increase of over 50% compared to 10 years ago. Around
DIVERSE SOCIETY 126 | 127 Freedom and equality: people in Germany can decide for themselves who they want to live with and what kind of relationship they want. 34,000 live in registered partner- ships. Registered partnerships were introduced in 2001 and en- sure legal recognition of same-sex relationships. In 2017 the Bundes- tag passed legislation to provide “marriage for all”. Gay couples now have the right to a full marriage and hence also to adopt children, for example. At the end of 2019 there were around 52,000 same- sex married couples. Furthermore, the Federal Government intends to introduce the principles of “com- munities of responsibility”. This aims to make it easier for two or more people to take responsibility for one another. While new forms of cohabitation and family life are emerging, so is the number of single-person house- holds, which now account for over 40% of all private households. On the one hand this development is due to demographic changes which have led to an increase in the number of older people living alone, but on the other hand more young people are also living on their own. According to a forecast by the Federal Statistical Office, one in four people in Germany will be living alone in 2040.
Migration and integration – facts and figures IMMIGRATION TO GERMANY Several hundred thousand people come to Germany each year. The record for the highest number of immigrants was set in 2015. 2.1 million 2 MILLION 1.5 MILLION 1 MILLION 0.8 million 0.7 million 0.8 million 1.2 million 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Source: Federal Statistical Office MULTILINGUALISM MIGRANT BACKGROUNDS PEOPLE FROM 49% Almost half of all people from migrant backgrounds are bilingual or multilingual. At home they speak German and one or more other languages. 53% 47% German citizenship Foreign citizenship In 2021 there were 22.3 million people in Germany from migrant backgrounds. Source: Federal Statistical Office
DIVERSE SOCIETY 128 | 129 A SY LU M “Today, Germany is a diverse and strong country at the centre of Europe. We are grateful for the contribution that many people have made towards that, including immigrants, their children and grandchildren.” REEM ALABALI-RADOVAN, FEDERAL COMMISSIONER FOR MIGRATION, REFUGEES AND INTEGRATION In 2021 around 190,800 ASYLUM APPLICATIONS were submitted. The three most common countries of origin for asylum seekers were Syria, Iraq and Iran. Source: Federal Office for Migration and Refugees NATURALISATIONS PER YEAR Each year over 100,000 people are naturalised as German citizens. 0 0 9 8 2 1 , 0 0 6 1 3 1 , 0 0 3 2 1 1 , 0 0 4 2 1 1 , 0 0 4 8 0 1 , 0 0 3 7 0 1 , 0 0 4 0 1 1 , 0 0 2 2 1 1 , 0 0 3 2 1 1 , 0 0 9 9 0 1 , 150,000 140,000 130,000 120,000 110,000 100,000 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Source: Federal Statistical Office
Freedom of religion Germany’s Basic Law guarantees freedom of religion. Article 4 of the Constitution states that “freedom of faith and of conscience and freedom to profess a re- ligious or philosophical creed shall be inviolable.” This includes the freedom to profess and practice a religion, along with the freedom not to profess any religion. Germany’s religious landscape is increasingly shaped by diversity and secularisation. Around 51% of the Ger- man population say they belong to one of the major Christian denominations. The Roman Catholic church in Germany is organised into the 27 Roman Cath- olic dioceses under the German Bishops’ Conference, while Protestant churches are organised into regional churches under the umbrella organisation of the Prot- estant Church in Germany (EKD). With over 21 million members in 9,900 parishes, the Roman Catholic church belongs to the worldwide church with the Pope at its head. The EKD is the association of the 20 independent regional Lutheran, Reformed and United churches. With around 20 million members, it includes the majority of German Protestant Christians. Around 41% of the population does not belong to any Christian denomination. GROWING SIGNIFICANCE OF ISLAM Migration is making Islam an in- creasingly significant part of re- ligious life. While no definitive survey has been carried out, the number of Muslims in Germany
There are 5 million Muslims living in Germany. DIVERSE SOCIETY 130 | 131 “Muslims in Germany and their religion are a natural part of our society.” Federal Minister of the Interior Nancy Faeser has been estimated to be between 5.3 and 5.6 million, with roots in 50 different nations. Large Mus- lim communities have grown up in many cities. The German Islam Conference (DIK) was established in 2006 and provides an official framework interaction be- tween Muslims and the German state. German universities also offer training programmes for imams, and the Federal Govern- ment intends to expand these ser- vices. for Jewish life in Germany, which was almost entirely destroyed by the Holocaust, is once again firm- ly rooted in Germany. Around 225,000 Jews now live in Germany. Approximately 92,000 are mem- bers of around 100 Jewish congregations across a broad spectrum of religious traditions. They are represented by the Central Council of Jews in Germany, which was established in 1950. PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN THE STATE AND RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES Germany does not have an established church. Instead, the state works with religious communities as part- ners. The state contributes to funding kindergartens and schools that are sponsored by religious communi- ties. The churches levy a church tax which is collected by the state to fund social, medical and other services. Schools must provide religious education as part of their standard curriculum, although restrictions to this apply in Berlin and Bremen. The teaching of Islam as part of religious education is being expanded. Additional teachers are being trained to ensure that Muslim children and young people who attend school in Germany can be offered religious education. Jewish life in Germany: the synagogue in Speyer
Thriving welfare state Germany’s welfare system is one of the most compre- hensive in the world. As in other developed democra- cies, spending on the welfare state represents the larg- est individual item of public spending. Expenditure on the welfare state amounted to around 1.19 trillion euros in 2020, equivalent to 33.6% of GDP. The tradition of the state welfare system goes back to the age of industrialisation in Germany in the sec- ond half of the 19th Century and is associated with the then Reich Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck. It was W E L FA R E S TAT E I N T H E BA S IC L AW Articles 20 and 28 of the Basic Law define the German state as a democratic and social federal constitutional democracy. Legislation must therefore concern itself with social just- ice and the social health, security and wellbe- ing of German citizens. Major areas of focus include employment law, tax law and the welfare insurance system. that under his chancellorship mandatory health insurance was first introduced in 1883. Over the following years, legislation was ex- panded that would form the basic principles of the welfare state. The Basic Law further enshrines the principle of the welfare state for the Federal Republic of Germany. According to the Basic Law, polit- ical leaders and society must con- tinually negotiate and update the form that the welfare state takes. Demographic change is makes as- similation necessary. COMPREHENSIVE PROTECTION THANKS TO INSURANCE Various forms of basic insurance for health, pensions, accidents, nursing care and unemployment provide a tightly-woven network protecting members of the public against threats to critical aspects of their lives. The network of welfare support includes a basic income for pensioners and those perma- nently unable to work, along with tax benefits such as the family al- lowance. Families receive child benefit payments each month. The Federal Government’s coalition agreement also includes a commit- ment to enshrine children’s rights in the Basic Law. The pension package that entered into force in 2014 especially im- proves the situation of elderly people. The reform saw the intro-
DIVERSE SOCIETY 132 | 133 Thanks to targeted support, senior citizens in Germany are free to live life as they choose and participate in society. duction, among other things, of the full pension from 63 years of age and the so-called “mother’s pension”, which acknowledges mothers’ work in raising children. Women who brought up children born before 1992 were not able to access the childcare support available to parents today, which reduced their opportunities in the world of work. The mother’s pen- sion acknowledges the work they did in bringing up children. Since 2014, around 9.5 million wom- en (and a small number of men) have had their pensions increased by over 300 euros a year. From 1 July 2014 onwards, people covered by the pension insurance scheme who have paid in for 45 years are able to retire at 63 without deductions to their pension. PROTECTING THE ELDERLY A basic pension scheme was introduced in early 2021. Anyone who has paid into the pension insurance scheme for at least 33 years will receive a bonus. The basic pension will benefit around 1.3 million people, many of them women. Health insurance cover is a legal requirement in Ger- many. Medical care is provided through a wide range of services including hospitals, medical practices and rehabilitation clinics.
Reallocating roles: more and more fathers in Germany are taking parental leave. Families and equality Thanks to parental leave, parental allowances and high quality childcare services, Germany supports families and helps parents to participate equally in working life. Policy is also keeping pace with social changes. Over the past decade, the proportion of mothers in employ- ment rose by about 5%, reaching around 75% in 2020. Over two-thirds of women with children who are in employment work part-time. Parental leave was introduced in 2007 and makes it easier for people to balance the demands of starting a family and developing their careers. The scheme al- lows both partners to take a break from their careers for up to three years. During this period parents are also given spe- cial protection against being made redundant. The parental allowance (“Elterngeld”) is designed to com- pensate when parents lose income because they are caring for chil- dren. It is worth between 300 and 1,800 euros, depending on previous income. This support is avail able for both parents for up to a total of 14 months. If both parents share in caring for their children, each par-
DIVERSE SOCIETY 134 | 135 introduced in 2015 to make it even more worthwhile for parents to return to work early. The scheme gives parents working part-time additional support for up to 28 months. Since 01 August 2013 children have had a legal right to a nursery place upon reaching the age of one. Over 2.6 million children aged three or above attend a nurs- ery or other form of childcare until they start school. As of 01 March 2021, 34.4% of children in Germany un- der 3 attend nursery or other childcare. GENDER EQUALITY Parental leave, financial support and easier access to childcare have strengthened the basis for wom- en’s equality, as required by the Basic Law. In some areas, young women have already overtaken their male counterparts in education. For example, women made up 52% of first-year students in the 2021/2022 winter semester. Nevertheless, there remains a gap between the genders when it comes to earnings and career paths. Even where women hold the same formal quali- fications and attributes, they still earn an average of 6% less than men. Women are still under-represented in managerial roles. The Federal Government is working actively to redress these disparities. In addition to direct support through programmes such as the parental allowance, legisla- tion, such as regulations to promote transparency of remuneration, aims to close the gap between men and women. Quota requirements also ensure that women hold more managerial positions. The Federal Govern- ment is also working actively internationally to pro- mote gender equality. ent can claim parental support for between 2 and 12 months. More and more fathers are taking up this offer and setting their jobs to one side for a few weeks or months. it GETTING BACK TO WORK EARLY MAKES A DIFFERENCE Nevertheless, is still mainly mothers who remain at home for a relatively long period after the birth of their children. The Elterngeld Plus programme was
Active civil society Around 29 million people in Germany – just under 40% of the entire population – take social responsibil- ity by volunteering in their free time. The figure has grown appreciably over the past 20 years, from around 31% in 1999. According to the 5th German Volunteer Survey, which was published in 2021, around 60% of respondents commit up to 2 hours a week to volun- teering, with 17% volunteering for 6 or more hours. A key finding of the study was that volunteering takes many forms and a wide range of groups benefit from it. Most volunteers contribute to sport and exercise, followed by culture and music, social projects and ser- vices, and schools and nurseries. VO LU N T E E R I N G K N OWS N O L I M I T S integration There are many opportunities to volunteer in Germany. From nurseries to old people’s homes, helping people with disabilities or conservation, initiatives and sports associations, people of all ages can take part in volunteering services in many different ways. The Federal Government pro- vides a range of services to support this form of civic activity. One example is the Inter- national Voluntary Service, where partici- pants contribute to social and environ mental projects around the world, or undertake peace and reconciliation work. The term "civil society” refers to the part of society which is not part of the government or a political party, but rather acts in a voluntary and public capacity to take action on social and political issues. Clubs and associations play a significant role when it comes to voluntary action. Together with charities, churches, cooperatives, aid organisations, non-profit or- ganisations and private initiatives, the members of Germany’s more than 620,000 clubs and associ- ations form the backbone of the “third sector”. CHARITABLE FOUNDATIONS MAKING A DIFFERENCE in par- Charitable foundations ticular are becoming increasing- ly significant. With more than 25,000 incorporated foundations under civil law (the standard legal form for a foundation) Germa- ny has one of the highest num- bers of charitable foundations in Europe. In 2021 alone, over 800 new foundations were set up. For Germany as a whole, there are an average of 29 foundations for every 100,000 members of the popula- tion. Together, foundations of all legal structures have access worth roughly 110 billion euros. The main role of over half of Germany's foundations (51.8%) is to support social causes. It is also common
DIVERSE SOCIETY 136 | 137 for foundations to support educa- tion and childcare (34.5%) and art and culture (31.6%). The five larg- est foundations under private law in terms of expenditure are SRH Holding, the RAG-Stiftung, the Al- sterdorf Evangelical Foundation, the Volkswagen Foundation and the German Federal Environmen- tal Foundation. Community foundations are a growing force, where members of the public act as joint funders to support local or regional projects. The first foundations of this kind were established in 1996. Since then, over 250 have been created and they bear the seal of the Association of German Foundations. While levels of involvement in social projects and organisations have increased slightly in recent years, the main shift has been away from larger associ- ations and towards small, independently organised groups and project-focused activities. One particu- larly significant period was during the major influx of refugees in 2015 and 2016, when many people in Germany volunteered through local initiatives to support the asylum seekers. The Covid-19 pandemic has seen the emergence of new forms of voluntary activities, such as going shopping for people in at- risk groups. Many people in Germany use their free time to support voluntary projects and associations.
Culture and media T H R I V I N G N AT IO N O F C U LT U R E Germany has a diverse culture and media landscape, it reflects the nation’s federal structure and is open to new approaches and influ- ences from around the world. A summary. I N T E RC U LT U R A L DI A LO G U E Promoting international cooperation and dialogues between soci- eties through culture and education is a core element of German foreign policy. A RT I S T IC A N D C U LT U R A L F R E E D O M The Federal Government has pledged to make supporting culture in all its diversity a state objective. Cultural freedom is protected by the Basic Law. A S S U R I N G F R E E D O M F O R T H E M E DI A A free press is one of the most important preconditions for democ- racy. Digitalisation is changing the media. AT T R AC T I V E L A N G UAG E Learning German is on the up, prompted by attractive employment opportunities and the good quality of life in Germany.
Around 130 million PEOPLE speak German as their first language, or use it regularly as an additional language. 1998 marked the creation of the office of Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media. Around the world the 158 INSTITUTES IN 98 COUNTRIES of the Goethe-Institut provide access to the German language and culture. C U LT U R E A N D M E D I A 7 Facts 60 MILLION PEOPLE in Germany regularly read a printed newspaper or access a digital newspaper at least once a week. 51 UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITES of natural or cultural significance are found in Germany. In Europe only Italy has more world heritage sites. Between 1981 and 2021 Germany has funded the preservation of over 3,600 cultural assets in 144 countries. Article 5 of the Basic Law protects the freedoms of opinion, of the press, and of the arts.
CULTURE AND MEDIA 140 | 141 and enriching the cultural land- scape. The work taking place at the Maxim Gorki Theatre in Berlin is a prime example of this, whose director, Shermin Langhoff, has coined the term “postmigrant the- atre”. A strong postmigrant current is also underway in the world of literature, represented by writers like Nino Haratischwili, Abbas Kh- ider and Saša Stanišić. FEDERAL TRADITION Germany’s federal structure also contributes to the richness and diversity of the country’s cultural landscape. Since its foundation in 1949 and reunification in 1990, the Federal Republic has conscious- ly drawn on its federal traditions and handed over responsibility for culture to the states. In the past, Germany was made up of many free cities and small and me dium- sized states. One remnant of this former structure are the 140 or so city and state theatres, 200 pri- vate theatres and 130 profession- al orchestras, some of which are connected to public broadcasters. Over 7,200 museums and exhib- ition halls make up an unparalleled museum sector. In addition there are world-famous cultural events across the whole country. These include Berlin’s international film festival, the Berlinale, the Bayreuth Festival, the Frankfurt Book Fair and Rock am Ring. Thriving nation of culture Germany has a rich and diverse cultural life, steeped in tradition and open to new perspectives. The Basic Law protects the freedom of the arts just as it does the freedom of the press. Germany’s reputation as a major cultural nation is based on great literary figures such as Goethe, Schil- ler and Thomas Mann, and famous composers such as Bach, Beethoven and Brahms. Yet contemporary au- thors like Juli Zeh, Carolin Emcke and Navid Kermani and musicians like Robin Schulz, Zoe Wees and Milky Chance are keeping Germany’s cultural life in the pub- lic eye around the world. In recent years, young artists and creators from mi- grant backgrounds have made a particular contribu- tion, opening up new perspectives through their work A space for international art at Kunsthalle Düsseldorf
“Freedom of the press and freedom of reporting by means of broadcasts and films shall be guar- anteed. There shall be no censorship.” Basic Law, Article 5 The singer Zoe Wees performs with the Band of the Bundeswehr, in the Elbphilharmonie. Germany’s cultural and creative economy is one of its most innovative sectors. accounting for just under 3% of GDP in 2020. The Federal Government is keen to boost the creative and cultural economy, and has ex- panded funding and financing tools to this end. DIALOGUE IN “PRE-POLITICAL” SPACES Foreign cultural and educational policy is a high pri- ority for Germany. Alongside classical diplomacy and foreign economic policy, it forms a core element of the foreign policy spectrum. Through dialogue between people and civil society, it facili- tates discussions in what Germans call “pre-political spaces”. This creates opportunities to improve mutual comprehension. It allows conflicts and crises to be defused, and a basis for discussion persists even during periods of political instability. One way this basis can make a difference is by helping at-risk artists and creative indi-
CULTURE AND MEDIA 142 | 143 language abroad. Through its funding for translations, the Federal Foreign Office is also committed to ensur- ing that Germany’s cultural diversity is available to international audiences. FREEDOMS ENSHRINED IN THE BASIC LAW Freedom of the arts is enshrined in Article 5 of the Ba- sic Law. The Federal Government has pledged to make supporting culture in all its diversity a state objective. The office of the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media was created in 1998. The Basic Law also guarantees freedom of opinion and the press, since a free press is one of the most important preconditions for democracy. The constitution says: “There shall be no censorship.” According to the ranking compiled by Reporters Without Borders, an NGO, Germany placed 16th out of 180 countries in 2021. The press is not controlled by governments or parties. Instead, media companies are funded through private enterprise. Germany has the world’s fifth-largest newspaper market, after Chi- na, India, Japan and the US. The independent public broadcasters form another key pillar of Germany’s free media. These broadcasters report in an objective and unbiased way from all regions of Germany, free from economic and political interests. viduals to find refuge in Germany or a third country through one of the protection programmes run by the Federal Foreign Office, where they can then continue their work supported by scholarships. Foreign cultural and educational policy is also responsible for restoring and preserving significant buildings and items of global cultural heri- tage and promoting the German MANY OPPORTUNITIES TO LEARN GERMAN Just under 15.5 million people around the world are currently learning German. The majority are in Europe, but increasing numbers of learners are in Africa and Asia. Germany’s strong economy and the demand for skilled workers, accompanied by its high-quality higher education system, make learning German a very attractive option. The Goethe-Institut’s 158 offices in 98 countries provide a gateway to Ger- many’s language and culture.
Intercultural dialogue Foreign cultural and educational policy is a core elem- ent of a comprehensive foreign policy. Sharing ideas through exchange and cooperating on culture and education, academia and research create “pre-polit- ical spaces” and form the basis for sustainable foreign policy for societies. It is through the dialogue between people and civil society organisations that new ways towards shared perspectives can be found. This also creates a basis to defuse conflicts and crises at an early stage, or even to prevent them. CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES PROMOTE EXCHANGES Germany’s foreign cultural and educational policy also promotes the German language around the world, with the aim of raising awareness of Germany as a culture with a rich and diverse cultural life. Cur- rent initiatives include promoting a var iety of cultural programmes such as exhibitions, coopera- tion projects by German theatres, supporting literature and films, along with various education pro- grammes such as the PASCH ini- tiative (“Schools: Partners for the Future”), a network of almost 2,000 schools that offer German as a for- eign language. Foreign cultural and education policy also covers pro- jects in dialogue with the Islamic world and “kulturweit”, a project that allows young people from Germany to spend a year doing voluntary service abroad. To deliver foreign cultural and education policy, the Federal For-
Restoring and cataloguing manuscripts from Timbuktu in Mali CULTURE AND MEDIA 144 | 145 eign Office mainly works with pri- vate intermediaries with a range of specialisms. These include the Goethe-Institut, the ifa, the Ger- man Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), the German Commission for UNESCO, the Deutsche Aus- landsgesellschaft, and the Alex- ander von Humboldt Foundation. The Federal Foreign Office also partners with political, private and business-financed foundations, civil society organisations and sub- ordinate authorities. RETURNING BRONZES TO AFRICA – SETTING A NEW STANDARD In July 2022 Germany and Nigeria agreed on a historic return of the “Benin Bronzes” from West Africa. These sculptures were taken to German museums after they were looted during the colonial era. The agreement introduced a new phase of the cultural partnership. It strengthens the partnerships between the museums and intensifies joint archaeological projects in order to give more people access to these works of art. The agreement, which is supported by the Federal Govern- ment, the states and Germany’s museums, is a clear sign that Germany is increasing its efforts to engage with the responsibility that arises from colonialism. Foreign cultural policy values a holistic view of culture that ac- knowledges the effect that culture can achieve in terms of foreign and social policy. This includes the significance for societies of their cultural heritage. Germany’s pro- gramme to preserve cultural as- sets around the world helps foster cultural identities. The programme has helped preserve manuscripts from Timbuktu in Mali, as well as making digital recordings of trad- itional music from Afghanistan and conserving the Angkor Wat UNESCO World Heritage site. In the period from 1981 to 2021, Ger- many provided almost 90 million euros to fund over 3,600 projects in 146 countries. Federal Foreign Minister Annalena Baerbock and Lai Mohammed, Nigeria’s Minster for Culture, at the signing of the agreement on the Benin Bronzes.
Freedom of art and culture The independence of art and culture are guaranteed by Germany’s Basic Law, Article 5 of which states: “Arts and sciences, research and teaching shall be free.” This arises from the conviction that new ideas and thinking from arts and culture can be very significant to mod- ern democratic society. The state therefore provides funding to artists and cultural institutions in order to preserve their independence from the free market. Art and culture are also funded privately in Germany, such as by companies and foundations, and public and private funding are often intertwined. The state sup- ports the efforts of private donors through tax breaks, thereby providing indirect public funding beyond its own budget. In addition to this, other subsidies are also available for art and culture, such as the artists social insurance established by the Federal Government. This ensures that independent creative practitioners can enjoy the same social, health, employment and other protections as people in contracted employment. Art- ists must only cover half of their insurance costs them- selves. The remaining half is covered by subsidies from Federal Government and social security contributions from businesses that make use of art and communica- tion services. “CULTURE RESTART” PROGRAMME IN THE PANDEMIC The financial difficulties caused by the Covid-19 pan- demic were particularly severe for small cultural in- stitutions and independent artists. The Federal Government therefore set up a range of programmes to support them. Independent artists working alone and small busi- nesses could apply for immediate financial support, for example. By the end of June 2022, around 5 mil- lion applications for funding had been received, along with 170,000 applications for loans. Around 130 billion euros of economic support was provided. MANIFESTO FOR THE FREEDOM OF THE ARTS The special “Culture Restart” programme comprises subsidies worth around 2 billion euros. It has been extended until 2023 for the time being. The programme is primarily aimed at cultural insti- tutions, the majority of which are privately funded. Up to 2.5 billion euros are available in the Fed- eral Government’s special fund for cultural events. The funds are to help plan and resume the provision of cultural events. The “kurzarbeit” model of support for workers on reduced hours is also being employed in the cultural sector. Even during the Covid-19 pan- demic, artistic and cultural free-
CULTURE AND MEDIA 146 | 147 Creativity without anxiety: the German state is supporting independent artists. dom is a precious asset that de- serves protection. This is all the more pressing, as far-right nation- alist parties in Germany and other European countries have increas- ingly put this autonomy at risk. These parties are demanding that cultural sub sidies be linked to the content of the art. In an effort to counteract this, around 60 institu- tions responded to an initiative by the Berlin Academy of Arts to form the European Alliance of Acade- mies, which published a manifes- to in Berlin in October 2020. In its Manifesto, the Alliance pledges its commitment to “the freedom of the arts as a prerequisite for our cultural, social and political way of life.” NEW ARTISTIC NARRATIVE A new narrative has emerged in artistic works in re- cent years, one which is shaped by external influen- ces, biographies of migration and new perspectives. Above all it has been young artists who have found forms of articulation that allow them to respond to how different cultures of origin collide and coalesce. The work taking place at the Maxim Gorki Theatre in Berlin is representative of postmigrant art, as is the majority of contemporary musical culture and liter- ary activity.
Assuring freedom for the media A free press is one of the most important precondi- tions for a democracy. In Germany, that is protected by the Basic Law. Article 5 describes freedom of opin- ion and the press as: “Every person shall have the right freely to express and disseminate his opinions in speech, writing and pictures and to inform himself without hindrance from generally accessible sources. (. . .) There shall be no censorship.” The lifeblood of press freedom is a diverse media landscape. People in Germany can find information in sources of all kinds and form their own opinions. The press is not controlled by governments or parties. Instead, media companies are funded through private enterprise. Germany has the world’s fifth-larg- est newspaper market, after Chi- na, India, Japan and the US, and the largest market in Europe. The media in Germany currently in- cludes around 320 mostly region- al daily newspapers, 16 weekly newspapers and 1,300 magazines. According to the ranking compiled by Reporters Without Borders, an NGO, Germany placed 16th out of 180 countries in 2021. COMBATING FAKE NEWS AND DISINFORMATION Digitalisation has brought about a marked shift in the media that Germans can access. For ex ample, in 2021 around 260 titles were available as daily e-newspapers, with a total readership of 2.2 mil- lion. Media consumption has also M I L E S TO N E S 1945 In the years after the end of Nazi rule, newspapers may only be published in Germany under Allied licence. The first licence to be awarded in the US zone of occupation goes to the Frankfurter Rundschau on 01 August 1945. 1950 The six West German broadcasters meet in Bremen and agree to form the “Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtli- chen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland”, now known as ARD. 1984 The “Programmgesellschaft für Kabel- und Satelliten- rundfunk”, or PKS for short, goes on air from Ludwigshafen. This marks the birth of private TV broadcasting in Germany, the culmination of 20 years of debate.
CULTURE AND MEDIA 148 | 149 changed significantly. In the first quarter of 2022, 78 million people (93%) went online regularly, while 73 million are active on social media. As in many other countries, the digital revolution has brought with it a new understanding of the public sphere, as social media and blogs allow everyone to contrib- ute their opinions to discussions. Nevertheless, the media still have a key role, such as when it comes to combating fake news and disin- formation. Journalists are respon- sible for informing the public on the basis of careful research and faithful reporting. Germany’s pub- lic service broadcasters have a legal mandate to supply as many people as possible with information, edu- cation, advice and entertainment. They follow the British model as corporate bodies funded by licence fees or public entities, and form the second pillar of a dual system built on both public and private services. This principle has essentially re- mained unchanged since the foundation of the Federal Republic in 1949. TELEVISION IN 30 LANGUAGES Germany’s public service broadcasters include ARD, which stands for Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffent lich- rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (the Working Group of Public Broadcast- ers of the Federal Republic of Germany), ZDF (Zweites Deutches Fernsehen) and Deutschlandradio. Deutsche Welle (DW) is Germany’s international broadcasting service and a member of ARD. DW broadcasts in 30 languages, providing TV, radio, Internet and media development as part of the DW Academy. The German News Service provides news in nine languages free of charge for media organisations and interested mem- bers of the public. 1995 Only six years after the birth of the World Wide Web, three German daily newspapers go online. Taz (a centre-left paper), the Schweriner Volkszeitung and Rhein Zeitung rapidly develop online communities of readers. 2001 The Rhein Zeitung, from Rhineland-Palatinate, is the first daily newspaper in the world to provide a daily e-edition. By 2021, around 2.2 million e-newspapers are sold each day across 261 different titles. 2022 Around 93% of people in Germany (78 million) are online, and 87% use social media (73 million). The average user has five accounts. There are 118 million mobile phones for 83.2 million people.
Media in Germany – facts and figures EUROPE’S LARGESTNEWSPAPER MARKET Germany has a large and varied range of newspapers and magazines. 339 NEWSPAPERS 318 daily newspapers 16 weekly papers 5 Sunday papers circulation approx. 15 million 7,000 MAGAZINES 1,300 mass-market magazines 5,600 specialist journals 2022, 2nd quarter, source: BDZV INCREASED MEDIA CONSUMPTION ONLINE Median internet use per day in minutes 2019 2020 2021 99 120 136 0 50 100 150 Source: ARD/ZDF online survey 2021 DIGITAL NEWSPAPERS German newspapers sell over 2 million digital newspapers each publication day, the majority to regular subscribers. 2,207,995 copies 1,500,000 copies 1,000,000 copies 500,000 copies Copies sold 40% 30% 20% 10% 2010 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 Source: ZMG circulation data, basis: IVW quarterly circulation lists
CULTURE AND MEDIA 150 | 151 THE GUARANTOR OF DIVERSITY AND INDEPENDENT REPORTING: GERMANY’S PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTERS BREMEN HAMBURG BERLIN COLOGNE BONN LEIPZIG MAINZ FRANKFURT SAARBRÜCKEN STRASSBOURG STUTTGART MUNICH “You cannot have free and democratic so- cieties without a free and diverse press. It isn’t just the lifeblood of any democracy, but when called upon, it is a full-throated bulwark in defence of human rights.” FEDERAL FOREIGN MINISTER ANNALENA BAERBOCK HIGH LEVELS OF MEDIA USE Almost everyone uses media every day. Average use is over seven hours a day. Daily reach in percent Usage in minutes Media (total) Moving images Audio Text 45 99 89 85 t 2 x e T 5 7 7 o i d 1 u A M o v i n 2 2 2 g I m a g es Media use total net: 451 minutes 0 20 40 60 80 100 Daily reach: proportion of people who have used a medium in the course of a day. Source: ARD/ZDF mass communication trends 2021
People learning German improve their chances in the global job market thanks to strong language skills. Attractive language Germany is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union and ranks 11th in the world’s most widely spoken languages. Just under 130 million people across Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Luxem- bourg, Belgium, Liechtenstein and South Tyrol in Italy speak German as their first language or regularly use it as a second language. Along with English, Dutch and Swedish, German is one of the 15 or so Germanic languages, a branch of the Indo-Germanic fam- ily of languages. POPULAR SECOND LANGUAGE AROUND THE WORLD Germany’s strong economy and the demand for skilled workers make learning German a very attractive option. A 2020 study into German learn- ing around the world claims there are just under 15.5 million people currently learning German language
CULTURE AND MEDIA 152 | 153 Germany supports language schools at home and abroad. It also offers scholarships and provides oppor- tunities for internationally mobile students to study in higher education. The Federal Foreign Office is work- ing to train more teachers through targeted programs with intermediary organizations, such as “Dhoch3” run by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) or “Deutsch Lehren Lernen” run by the Goethe-Institut. There are around 140 German schools abroad, which play a major role in teaching German. They provide enhanced German teaching to around 2,000 pupils as part of the Federal Foreign Office’s PASCH scheme (Schools: Partners for the Future). In 2020, some 309,000 people took part in language courses provided by the Goethe-Institut, which provides German lan- guage courses and tests in almost 100 countries. This was an increase of around 73,000 compared to 5 years previously. The demand for digital language learning has also increased, boosted recently by the Covid-19 pandem- ic. For example, the Goethe-Institut’s online learn- ing platform recorded around 1.2 million hits in May 2020. There had been only 326,000 in the same month the previous year. In the same period, usage of on- line courses provided by Deutsche Welle doubled to 4.2 million hits. GERMAN IN ACADEMIA There has been a gradual decline in the importance of German as the international language of science. Re- searchers who do not speak German only rarely pub- lish in German. By contrast, German-speaking aca- demics actively publish in English, particularly in the natural sciences. German has a long and significant heritage as an academic language in the humanities and social sciences. as a foreign language. It remains the case that the majority of these learners are in Europe, but Ger- man is making particularly strong gains in Africa and Asia. The num- ber of people learning German in Africa has risen by almost 50% since 2015. One reason behind this is that language qualifications are becoming increasingly im- portant for skilled workers. This trend has been boosted by new legislation passed in 2020 which makes it easier for qualified work- ers from non-EU countries to mi- grate to Germany.
Living in Germany L A N D O F DI V E R S I T Y From the cities to the countryside, Germany is a varied and cosmo- politan country with a high quality of life. A summary. L E I S U R E LY E N J OY M E N T Healthy and delicious! Germany’s culinary scene favours regional produce, innovative methods and traditional recipes. C I T I E S – A G R E AT P L AC E TO L I V E Many people in Germany live in cities whose reputation for a great quality of life is known around the world. Cities are the focus of Federal Government support for building social housing. S P O RT I N G C H A L L E N G E S With international success across many different sports and mil- lions of people playing sport in their free time, Germany is a sport- ing nation. Sport also has an important role in promoting inte- gration. P O P U L A R T R AV E L D E S T I N AT IO N Whether you want mountains and lakes or city breaks with cul- tural highlights, Germany offers countless opportunities as a trav- el destination. Environmentally friendly options are becoming ever more popular.
Germany has a high standard of living. In the 2021 United Nations Human Development Index, Germany ranked 9th out of 191 countries. L I V I N G I N G E R M A N Y 7 Facts The average German spends around 1 hour a day playing sport, hobbies and games. 316 VEGAN cafés and restaurants are now open in Germany. The average population density in Germany is 233 PEOPLE per square kilometre. The most densely populated cities are Berlin (4,090 people per km²), Hamburg (2,446/km²) and Bremen (1,624/km²). There are 80 major cities in Germany. – The capital Berlin has the largest population – 3.8 million. 327 RESTAURANTS in Germany have one or more Michelin stars. 9% of Germany’s working population are employed in the tourist industry.
LIVING IN GERMANY 156 | 157 Germany has one of the highest standards of living in the world. Ac- cording to the 2021 United Nations Human Development Index, Ger- many ranked 9th out of 191 coun- tries. With a population of over 83 million, Germany is the most populous country in the EU and one of the most densely populated. Around 77% of the population live in densely or moderately populat- ed areas. Around 30% of the popu- lation live in major cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. There are 80 such cities in Germany. The cities also attract many tourists. Berlin is a particularly popular choice and regularly sets new visitor records. Berlin is a metropolis of 3.8 million people and the third most popular tourist city in Europe in terms of overnight stays, behind London and Paris. CREATING EQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS The Federal Government is com- mitted to delivering good living conditions for people of all nation- alities across the whole country, from cities to the countryside. The gap has narrowed between East and West Germany since reunifica- Land of diversity Germany is a great place to live. It is a coun- try of great diversity, attracting visitors through the allure of cities such as Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, as well as its ever-changing landscape from the North Sea to the Alps. is Covering around 358,000km², Germany the fourth-largest country in the European Union, after France, Spain and Sweden. From the North Sea and the Baltic in the north to the Alps in the south, Ger many’s main geographical regions are the North German Plain, the Central Uplands, the hills of the south-west, the foothills of the Alps in the south, and the Bavarian Alps. From its northernmost to its southernmost point, Germany measures 876km, and 640km from the most easterly to the most westerly point. Germany’s beautiful beaches are a popular tourist destination.
Picturesque cities are the ideal place for a stroll. Quedlinburg in Saxony-Anhalt is a World Heritage Site. tion in 1990, and living conditions are becoming more and more similar. A new “Future Centre for European Transformation and German Unity” has been set up to continue the process of social cohesion, and to demon- strate the close connection between German unity and democracy in Europe. Germany’s demographic transition is particularly ap- parent in rural areas and regions with a lack of well- paid jobs, where rates of urban migration are above average. The Federal Government is providing target- ed support for affected areas in the form of packages of measures aimed at increasing employment, mobility and infra- structure. H I G H Q UA L I T Y O F L I F E I N C I T I E S A N D T H E CO U N T RY S I D E Digitalisation, the energy transi- tion and new forms of mobility are causing far-reaching changes to how people live. They are also creating new opportunities, such as making it easier for people to
LIVING IN GERMANY 158 | 159 15.87 billion euros on organic food and drink products. There are over 35,000 organic farms in Germany, one in eight of all businesses in this category. They cultivate 10.8% of all agricultural land. Over 64% of these farms are run in accordance with the regulations of organic farming associations – almost two-thirds of Germany’s total organic industry. Organic products are support- ed by certification systems; thus far over 100,000 have been registered in the Organic Seal database. Around 8 million people in Germany identify as vegetarians, and around 1.6 million say they are vegans. Never- theless, there remains a demand for gourmet cuisine, with 327 restaurants in Germany holding one or more Michelin stars in the 2022 Michelin Guide – more than ever. Straight from the field to the market stall, markets emphasise regional products. balance their families and careers. Germany is therefore investing in modern standards such as trans- port that is comprehensive, net- worked, affordable, climate-friend- ly and suitable for daily use. It is also funding high-speed mobile and broadband, expanding re- newable energy and modernising healthcare. Over half of the population of Germany live in rural areas, small towns or villages. The countryside is an attractive place to live, work and relax. Just under half of Ger- many’s economic output is gen- erated in rural areas. Nevertheless, cities are attracting many people thanks to many job opportunities and the variety of cultural and leis- ure activities. Many German cities also have plenty of green spaces such as parks compared to other cities around the world. From the city to the countryside, Germany is working to ensure that people can live where they want to, regardless of where they come from. A range of initiatives is underway, such as rent caps and a “housing offensive”. SUSTAINABLE FOOD People’s desire for a metropolitan lifestyle is matched by a demand for a distinctive regional character, particularly when it comes to food. The organic food industry is firmly established in German agriculture. In 2021, German consumers spent
From vegetarian and vegan to crossover and traditional cuisine, Germany’s culinary scene is dynamic and diverse. Leisurely enjoyment German cuisine, wine and beer are popular around the world and in high demand. Regional and health-fo- cused products are particularly fashionable. Yet for all the many international influences, many amateur and professional chefs are returning to home grown in- gredients. Organic foods are making up an ever larger share of the market. German wine has been enjoying an international renaissance since the turn of the millennium. The “Riesling miracle” is embodied by a generation of young winemakers who prioritise high quality instead of large yields. Germany’s climatic conditions lend its wines a fine tex- ture without high alcohol content. THRIVING AND ADAPTABLE WINE CULTURE Wine is grown in 13 regions across Germany with a wide range of distinctive regional characteris-
LIVING IN GERMANY 160 | 161 Sax ony and Saale-Unstrut. The three largest wine-pro- ducing areas are Rheinhessen, Pfalz and Baden. While over 100 different grape varieties are cultivated in Ger- many, around 20 dominate the market, particularly the white Riesling and Müller-Thurgau grapes. White wine accounts for 68% of German wine production. Red wine makes up 32%, with Pinot Noir and Dornfelder as the leading varietals. In 2021, the German Commission for UNESCO included Germany’s wine culture in the country’s “intangible cultural heritage”. TRADITIONS AND NEW HABITS Germany is also a beer-loving land, whose beer is ap- preciated as belonging to a centuries-old tradition of brewing by many small family-owned breweries and monastic breweries. Apart from a very few exceptions, all German beer is subject to the Purity Law of 1516, the world’s oldest regulation for foodstuffs. The Law states that beer may contain water, hops and barley and no other ingredients. Between 5,000 and 6,000 types of beer are produced in Germany, most of them in the pilsner style. Overall, however, beer consump- tion is falling. A popular trend in recent years has been craft beers. Produced by small, independent breweries, these beers focus on unusual flavour combinations. The German restaurant industry is known for its dyna- mism and diversity and is considered among the best in Europe. Haute cuisine sits alongside crossover cook- ing and an increasing range of restaurants catering to vegetarian and vegan tastes. Meanwhile, traditional varieties of produce are enjoying a renaissance, such as parsnips, turnips and Jerusalem artichokes. These are the pillars of the current boom in all things healthy, seasonal, regional and reminiscent of home cooking. At the same time, a generation of young chefs are re- interpreting classic dishes and spicing them up with global influences. tics. Germany has around 103,000 hectares under vine and some 15,000 or so producers, making it a medium-sized producer when compared to other wine-produc- ing nations. Production in 2021 stood at 8.45 million hectolitres. Around 10% of Germany’s total wine-producing area is given over to organic wine production. Ger- many’s wine-growing areas are some of the most northerly in the world. Most are located in the south and south-west of the country, the exceptions being the regions of
CITIES BECOME STADIUMS Spectacular scenes draw in the crowds – right in the heart of German cities! From surfing in Munich to extreme climbing on the Frankfurt skyline and even kite landboarding in Berlin (a combination of skateboarding and kite- surfing), German cities are stadiums for sport lovers.
LIVING IN GERMANY 162 | 163 Cities – a great place to live Germany’s major cities always do well in quality of life rankings. More and more people in Germany want to live in urban areas. German cities are often noted for their good jobs, clean environments, low crime, a wide range of leisure and cultural activities, and good transport connections. In 2022 The Economist (a Brit- ish magazine) published its ranking of the quality of life in major cities around the world. Three German cities came in the top 25: Frankfurt am Main placed 7th, Hamburg 16th and Düsseldorf 22nd. Germany has 80 cities with over 100,000 inhabit- ants, and there are 618 medium-sized towns and cities with populations between 20,000 and 99,999. Around three-quarters of the population as a whole live in towns and cities. However, experts disagree on whether the strong trend in favour of living in cities was at least temporarily slowed by the Covid-19 pandemic. Given the many new flexible ways of working such as working from home, it may become less of a priority for many people to live close to their workplace. PRESERVING SOCIAL DIVERSITY IN THE HOUSING MARKET The demand for housing in urban areas has led to a sharp rise in rents for renters starting new contracts, as well as significant increases in property prices. When ranked by home ownership rates, Germany ranks second-to-last out of the OECD countries, with 47% of households owning their own homes. In contrast, the majority rent their homes. The average Ger- man spends 27% of their income on housing expenses. In response, the Federal Government has initi- ated a rent cap which is aimed at preserving social diversity in areas where the housing market is fac- ing pressures. Thanks to the rent cap, federal states can specify areas where landlords may not increase rents by more than 10% more than a comparable home when renew- ing a tenancy. There are high levels of demand for housing in many regions. In order to meet this need, the Federal Gov- ernment plans to build 400,000 new homes a year, including 100,000 publicly funded homes. The Fed eral Government also plans to spend 14.5 billion euros on constructing social housing by 2026. A range of strategies is in place to promote home ownership, such as by offer- ing loans in lieu of equity and inter- est rate reductions. Surf and the city: surfers love Munich’s Eisbachwelle.
Sporting challenges Germany loves sport and it has enjoyed great success in international competitions. In the medal table for all modern Olympic Games, Germany ranked sec- ond in 2022 with over 1,800 medals, behind only the USA. Some 27 million people in Germany belong to the country’s 90,000 or so sports clubs. In addition to their sporting activities, these clubs have an important function in promoting participation and socialisation, particularly in the areas of youth work and integra- tion. Almost all clubs have people from migrant back- grounds in their teams. The “Integration through Sport” programme is funded jointly by the German Olympic Sports Confeder ation (DOSB) and the Federal Office for Migration and Ref- ugees. It acknowledges how migration enriches Ger- many’s sporting landscape. The DOSB is an umbrella organisation for sport in Germany and claims to be the largest civilian movement in the country. It funds both elite and mass participation sports. The Ger- man Football Association (DFB), which has 7.2 million members, is part of the DOSB. VOLUNTARY WORK WITH REFUGEES The Federal Government has joined forces with the DFB and the DFB’s Edigius Braun Foundation to set a further integration initia- tive in motion. This supports ac- tivities such as projects to integrate refugees into sport. The German national football team is support- ing the “1:0 für ein Willkommen” project (1:0 for a welcome) and its successor project, “2:0 für ein M I L E S TO N E S 1954 Germany beats Hungary 3:2 in Switzerland to win the football World Cup for the first time. The “Miracle of Bern” becomes a lasting symbol of post-war Germany. 1972 The summer Olympic Games in Munich are overshadowed when Israeli athletes are taken hostage and murdered by Palestinian terrorists. 1988 Steffi Graf becomes the first woman to win the tennis “Golden Slam”, winning all four major tournaments plus an Olympic gold medal within a single calendar year.
LIVING IN GERMANY 164 | 165 and men from Germany have enjoyed high levels of suc- cess in international competition and the Paralympics. NATIONS BROUGHT TOGETHER THROUGH SPORT German sporting organisations are working through the International Sports Promotion programme to help develop sport in several countries in the Global South. The Federal Foreign Office is a partner in the programme. Over 1,500 short and long-term projects have been delivered in over 130 countries since the early 1960s. Willkommen”. Since 2015 these projects have provided financial support to over 3,700 clubs for their voluntary work with refugees. The Bundesliga is the shining light in German sport. As the top flight of German football, it is consid- ered one of the most competitive leagues. Germany’s national men’s and women’s teams are among the most successful teams in the world. Alongside football, popular sports in Germany include gymnastics, athletics and handball. The Stiftung Deutsche Sporthilfe has played a major role in much of Germany’s sporting success through its support for around 4,000 athletes each year. Another major area of its work concerns supporting and funding athletes with disabilities. Such sportswomen Malaika Mihambo, queen of the long jump 2006 Germany hosts the FIFA World Cup under the motto of “A time to make friends”. The tournament becomes an unforgettable “summer fairy tale”, which garners a great deal of approval for Germany around the world. 2014 Following a strong per- formance in the football World Cup in Brazil, Germany’s national team lift the trophy again after defeating Argentina 1:0 in the final. It is the fourth time Germany has won the World Cup since 1954. 2022 The long jumper Malaika Mihambo wins her second world championship. Born in Heidelberg, Mihambo also holds the Olympic and European titles.
Popular travel destination The Germans love to travel, not just abroad, but espe- cially at home. For years now the Alps, the coasts, the North German lakes, nature reserves, and river valleys have headed the list of destinations. Germans have a passion for the varied landscape, for opportunities to go sightseeing, play sports or just relax – something they have long shared with visitors from abroad. Germany’s popularity as a tourist destination started rising immediately after Reunification in 1990 and continued unabated until the Covid-19 pandemic, with overnight stays by foreign visitors increasing by around 88%. In 2021 the number of overnight stays stood at 310.3 million, 31 million of which were by foreign visitors. Most international visitors come from Europe, primarily from the Netherlands, Switzerland, Poland and Austria. The conference and trade fair in- dustry also brings many people to Germany. Before the pandemic be- gan, Germany was Europe’s leading location for conferences and trade fairs, and was second only to the USA in the world rankings. Some 253,000 international exhibitors came to trade fairs in Germany. CULTURAL TREASURES AND THE GREAT OUTDOORS tourist at- Germany’s biggest tractions include world-famous buildings like the Brandenburg Gate, Neuschwanstein Castle and Cologne Cathedral. Equal- ly popular are Germany’s many UNESCO World Heritage Sites, such as the Sanssouci Palace in Potsdam, Naumburg Cathedral and historic Weimar.
Fun for the whole family – kayaking on the Staffelsee in Bavaria LIVING IN GERMANY 166 | 167 Germany’s wide range of oppor- tunities for active holidays also draws in many visitors. At around 200,000km in length, Germany’s network of signposted hiking trails, for example, offers magnificent views over the Wadden Sea nation- al park, for example, the Bavarian Forest, or the majestic backdrop of the Alps. Visitors can also enjoy over 200 well-established long-distance cycle trails stretching over tens of thousands of kilometres, such as the Iron Curtain Trail, at 1,131km, or the 818km-long German Limes Cycle Route. Those looking for a cheap place to stay will find plenty of options, with over 400 youth hos- tels and around 3,000 camp sites to choose from. The five former East German states also play a major role in tourism. Beautiful natural areas such as the Spreewald forest, historic cultural centres such as Dresden and Wei- mar, and Baltic seaside resorts like Binz on the island of Rügen attract tourists from Germany and abroad. In terms of overnight stays, visits to Saxony, Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt, Mecklenburg-West Pomerania and Brandenburg more than doubled between 1993 and the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. FEEL-GOOD HOLIDAYS AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY TRAVEL Wellness is a hot topic in German travel culture. It in- cludes unique features such as the river sauna in the Emser Therme spa complex, along with the relaxing landscapes of spa resorts like Bad Wörishofen and Bad Oeynhausen with its mid-19th century archi- tecture. Germany has over 350 spa resorts recognised by the Deutscher Heilbäderverband, the association of spas in Germany. The quality of medical treat- ment and rehab clinics also attracts many visitors to Germany. Demand for eco-tourism and sustainable travel is also growing in Germany. According to a 2021 study, three-quarters of German travellers see sustainable travel as important. More and more travel providers are using legally binding environmental and social standards in their branding, supported by the associ- ated certificates and labels. These relate to the sparing use of natural resources such as water, for example, cli- mate-friendly transport, reducing waste, and involve- ment in species protection projects. Organic farms of- fer holiday rooms with regional and seasonal menus, while eco campsites promote conservation and envir- onmentalism. Travellers in Germany love spending time in its rich and varied natural environments, such as the 103 natural parks and 16 UNESCO biosphere reserves. Everyone should be able to get around easily in Germany. To this end, many initiatives ensure that people with disabilities can travel without restric- tions in Germany.
Tourism – facts and figures W H E R E D O E S G E R M A N Y G O O N H O L I DAY? The most popular destinations for Germans, at home and abroad. 55.1 million HOLIDAYS in total 20.2 million HOLIDAYS in Germany Top 5, worldwide Germany 11.4% Spain Italy Turkey Croatia 8% 6.2% 4.4% 37% Top 5 in Germany Bavaria Mecklenburg-West Pomerania Schleswig-Holstein Lower Saxony Baden-Wurttemberg 11.8% 9.4% 18.7% 17.2% 15.7% 2021, source: Forschungsgemeinschaft Urlaub und Reisen e. V. There are around 7,000 museums and exhibition spaces in Germany. 51 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Germany. Of these, 48 are Cultural Heritage sites and 3 are Natural Heritage sites. Ten of the World Heritage sites are transnational or located across national borders, with some of their area in other countries.
LIVING IN GERMANY 168 | 169 G E R M A N Y’S M O S T P O P U L A R C I T I E S F O R D O M E S T IC T R AV E L Shares of all short stays of between two and four days. Berlin 8.8% Hamburg 6.9% Munich 3.2% Dresden 2.5% Cologne 2.1% Bremen 1.5% 2021, source: Deutscher Reiseverband “Increasingly, Germany is a country where you can experience that it is possible to combine experiencing and protecting natural resources very effectively.” F E D E R A L M I N I S T E R F O R ECO N O M IC A F FA I R S A N D C L I M AT E AC T IO N RO B E RT H A B EC K, OV E R N IG H T S TAYS I N G E R M A N Y BY F O R E IG N V I S I TO R S by most common countries of origin (thousands) 2,661 2,568 1,930 1,806 Netherlands Switzerland Poland Austria United States Denmark France Belgium Italy Spain 1,507 1,454 1,404 1,231 946 4,711 2021, source: Federal Statistical Office
DISCOVER GERMANY ONLINE If you’d like to know more about politics, economics, society, education and culture in Germany, check out www.facts-about-germany.de and www.deutschland.de/en for exciting and useful information. The following pages contain in depth background information on specific topics: Government and politics Major government plans – Composition of the parliament – The 16 federal states – Role of the Federal President – Decisions by the highest court in Germany Federal President: → www.bundespraesident.de Bundesrat (chamber of states): → www.bundesrat.de Federal Government: → www.bundesregierung.de German Bundestag: → www.bundestag.de Federal Constitutional Court: → www.bundesverfassungsgericht.de Partners in Europe and around the world German foreign policy – Funding sustainable develop- ment worldwide – Federal armed forces deployments – Involvement in international organisations Business and digitalisation Working in Germany – Information for skilled workers – International trade relationships – Finance hub Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs: → www.bmas.de Federal Ministry for Digital and Transport: → www.bmvi.de Federal Ministry of Finance: → www.bundesfinanzministerium.de Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action: → www.bmwk.de Federal Employment Agency: → www.arbeitsagentur.de German Chambers of Commerce Abroad: → www.ahk.de Climate and environment Federal Government climate and environment policies – Delivering the energy trans- formation – Action for conser- vation – Organic farming – Sustainable construction Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture: → www.bmel.de Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection: → www.bmuv.de Federal Ministry for Housing, Urban Development and Building: → www.bmwsb.bund.de German Energy Agency: → www.dena.de German Environment Agency: → www.umweltbundesamt.de
DISCOVER GERMANY ONLINE 170 | 171 Education and research Research location Germany – Universities and research institutes – global academic networks Federal Ministry of Education and Research: → www.bmbf.de Alexander von Humboldt Foundation: → www.humboldt-foundation.de Non-university research institutes: → www.mpg.de, www.fraunhofer.de, www.helmholtz.de, www.leibniz-gemeinschaft.de German Academic Exchange Service: → www.daad.de Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft: → www.dfg.de German Science and Humanities Council: → www.wissenschaftsrat.de Federal Foreign Office: → www.auswaertiges-amt.de Diverse society Federal Ministry of Defence: → www.bmvg.de Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development: → www.bmz.de Federal Armed Forces: → www.bundeswehr.de Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit: → www.giz.de European Union: → www.europa.eu Culture and media International culture and art scene – UNESCO World Heritage sites – Language courses in Germany and abroad – Diverse media landscape German Commission for UNESCO: → www.unesco.de Deutsche Welle: → www.dw.com Goethe-Institut: → www.goethe.de ifa – Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen: → www.ifa.de German welfare state – Migration and integration – Equal rights – Public volunteering Federal Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth: → www.bmfsfj.de Federal Ministry of Health: → www.gesundheitsministerium.de Federal Ministry of the Interior and Community: → www.bmi.de Federal Ministry of Justice: → www.bmj.de Federal Office for Migration and Refugees: → www.bamf.de Association of German Foundations: → www.stiftungen.org Living in Germany Travel destinations from the North Sea to the Alps – Elite and mass sports – Facts and figures on the Federal Republic of Germany German Football Association: → www.dfb.de German Olympic Sports Confederation: → www.dosb.de German National Tourist Board: → www.germany.travel Federal Statistical Office: → www.destatis.de
p. 116-117 p. 119 p. 120 p. 122 p. 127 p. 130 p. 131 p. 133 p. 134 p. 137 p. 138-139 p. 141 p. 142 p. 144 p. 145 p. 147 p. 152 p. 154-155 p. 157 p. 158 p. 159 p. 160 p. 162 p. 165 p. 166 Rawpixel Ltd./IStock picture alliance/Panama Pictures gpointstudio/IStock shironosov/IStock JLco - Julia Amaral/IStock picture alliance/dpa picture alliance/dpa bbernard/Shutterstock picture alliance/photothek picture alliance/dpa DrewDizzyGraham/Unsplash picture-alliance/dpa/dpaweb picture alliance/dpa ThomasImo/GettyImages picture alliance/dpa UniversitätderKünsteBerlin/MatthiasHeyde picture alliance/dpa alvarez/GettyImages pkazmierczak/AdobeStock picture alliance/imageBROKER Maskot/GettyImages Maskot/GettyImages LuisFernandoFelipeAlves/Unsplash picture alliance/dpa Ted Levine/GettyImages PICTURE CREDITS Title p. 3 p. 4-5 p. 8 p. 10 p. 11 p. 14-15 p. 18 p. 22-23 p. 25 p. 26 p. 28 p. 30 p. 34 p. 37 p. 39-40 p. 41 p. 42 p. 45 p. 49 p. 50 p.55 p. 56 p. 57 p. 58 p. 60-61 p. 63 p. 65 p. 66 p. 69 p. 74 p. 75 p. 77 p. 78-79 p. 81 p. 83 p. 84 p. 87 p. 90 p. 92 p. 95 p. 96-97 p. 99 p. 100 p. 101 p. 103 p. 104 p. 109 p. 112 p. 114 Nikada/IStock; FrancescoZivoli/Unsplash TimHufner/Unsplash spreephoto/GettyImages dpa/picture alliance dpa/picture alliance Daniel Kalker/picture alliance dpa/picture alliance manfredxy/shutterstock ClaudioSchwarz/Unsplash picture alliance/dpa/dpa Pool picture alliance/dpa andersphoto/Shutterstock picture alliance/dpa picture alliance/photothek picture alliance/photothek urbazon/IStock picture alliance/photothek picture alliance/dpa picture alliance/dpa picture alliance/dpa picture alliance/dpa https://www.flickr.com/photos/ unisgeneva/52350934622/ AktionDeutschlandHilft/ThorstenThor arche noVa/AxelFassio PRASANNAPIX/Shutterstock kamisoka/IStock JulianHochgesang/Unsplash PhilippeOursel/Unsplash AndresSiimon/Unsplash picture alliance/dpa/dpa-Zentralbild picture alliance/dpa picture alliance/SvenSimon picture alliance/photothek Westend61/Getty Images JanPhilippThiele/Unsplash picture alliance/dpa picture alliance/Zoonar picture alliance/photothek picture alliance/dpa/dpa-Zentralbild UniversitätStuttgartIFF/Fraunhofer IPA/ RainerBez/HeikeQuosdorf CecilieArcurs/IStock Westend61/GettyImages picture alliance/photothek picture alliance/RupertOberhäuser picture alliance/dpa/dpa-Zentralbild Fraunhofer IGCV with Airbus TomWerner/GettyImages Kosamtu/IStock HinterhausProductions/GettyImages skynesher/IStock
INDEX A Academia 93, 98-99,102-103, 108, 111, 114, 146, 153 Alliance 90/The Greens 12-13, 22, 24, 31, 42, 82 Alps 20, 76, 156, 166 Alternative for Germany (AfD) 12-13, 25 Automotive industry 74, 81, 86, 91 B Bach, Johann Sebastian 141 Bachelor’s degrees 100, 107 Baden-Wurttemberg 13, 30, 101, 168 Baerbock, Annalena 12, 25-26, 35, 41-42, 49, 53, 57, 64, 145, 151 BAföG ( Federal Training Assistance Act) 106 Basic income 121, 132 Basic Law 4, 7-8, 10-12, 16, 24, 31, 35, 43, 48, 54, 62, 65, 72, 76, 116, 130, 132, 135, 138, 140-143, 146, 148 Bavaria 7, 12-13,20, 25, 29, 167-168 Beer 160-161 Beethoven, Ludwig van 141 Benin Bronzes 145 Berlin 6-7, 11, 13, 20, 29, 30-31, 36-37, 42, 56, 65, 72, 104-105, 107, 115, 131, 141, 147, 151, 156-157, 162, 169 Berlinale 141 Biodiversity 64, 76 Biosphere reserves 76, 167 Birth rate 18 Bologna Process 101 Brahms, Johannes 141 Brandenburg 7, 13, 91, 106, 115, 167 Bremen 7, 13, 29, 131, 148, 151, 156, 169 FACTS ABOUT GERMANY 172 | 173 Bundesliga 165 Bundesrat 4, 7, 9, 13, 16, 24, 29-30, 170 Bundestag 4, 6, 8-13, 16, 24-32, 48, 51, 56, 170 Bundeswehr (Federal Armed Forces) 40, 48-50, 142 C Capital 6-7, 11, 20, 156 Catholic church 130 Center for International Peace Operations (ZIF) 51 Central Agency for German Schools Abroad (ZfA) 115 Chambers of Commerce Abroad 84, 88 Chemicals industry 68, 81, 92 Children 18, 52, 83, 114-115, 125-127, 129, 131, 133-135 Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 12-13, 25 Christian Social Union (CSU) 12-13, 29 Church taxes 131 Cities 29, 156, 158-159, 162-163, 169 Citizenship laws 125 Civil society 26, 56, 86, 116, 121, 136 Climate 20-21, 59, 108 Climate action 42, 58-59, 63, 64-65, 72-73, 75, 82, 102, 169 Climate foreign policy 64-65, 72 Coastline 21, 50, 166 Conservation 62, 64, 72, 136 Creative economy 91, 141-142 Cuisine 154, 160-161 Cultural assets preservation programme 145 Culture 136-137, 138, 140-147, 159, 166, 168 Culture of remembrance 22, 36 Currency 16, 47 Cycle routes, long distance 166 D Deutsche Forschungsgemein- schaft (DFG) 103 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) 171 Deutsche Welle 149, 171 Development cooperation 43, 95 Diet 159 Diplomacy 142 Diplomatic missions, foreign 40, 42, 84, 108 Dresden 7, 20, 92, 167, 169 Düsseldorf 7, 20, 141, 162 E Economy 26, 44, 78, 81-84, 86-87, 91-95, 102-103, 106, 143, 152, 169 Education 29, 59, 96, 98-99, 110, 114, 121, 124, 137, 138, 144, 149 Elections 8, 12, 30, 32-33 Electoral system 12 Electric mobility 60, 67, 74-75 Electronics and electrical engineering industry 92 Élysée Treaty 40, 46 Employment market 78, 82, 94- 95, 99, 109, 120-121, 152 Energy efficiency 66 Energy transformation 26, 59, 63-64,66, 68-69, 70, 75, 158 Environment 60, 62, 72, 76, 87, 102, 136, 163 Erfurt 7, 50 European Union (EU) 45-46, 48, 110 Excellence Initiative 106 Exports 78, 81, 84, 88
F Family 106, 117, 119, 120-121, 126, 132, 134, 158, 161, 167 Federal Chancellor 4, 6, 9-12, 14, 22, 24-29, 42, 47, 71, 82, 89 Federal Constitutional Court 9-10, 12, 16, 22, 31, 170 Federal Convention 8-9, 30 Federal Eagle 16 Federal Foreign Office 170 Federal Government 11-12, 22, 25- 29, 31, 38, 41, 43, 47-48, 51, 53-58, 63-65, 67-68, 72-78, 81-84, 86-87, 93-95, 100, 106, 109, 113, 115-116, 119-136, 138, 140, 142-143, 145- 146, 154, 157-158, 163-164, 170 Federalism 4, 7, 22, 138, 141 Federal Ministries 11 Federal Office for Migration and Refugees 118, 164 Federal President 4, 8-10 , 14, 16, 24, 30-31, 33, 111, 170 Federal states 6 Female quotas 94 Flag 16 Food security 53, 59 Football 164-165 Foreign cultural and educational policy 144 Foreign economic policy 142 Foreign policy 27, 38 42-48, 108, 144 Foundations 116, 136-137, 145-146 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft 99, 103 Free Democratic Party (FDP) 12-13, 25 Freedom of religion 116 Freedom of the press 140-143, 148 Free trade agreements 84-85 G Geography 20 German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) 171 German Democratic German Environment Agency 170 German Football Association (DFB) 171 German Language 144 German National Tourist Board (DZT) 171 German Rectors' Conference (HRK) 105, 107 Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI) 84 Gesamtschule 115 Global player 91-92 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 141 Goethe-Institut (GI) 115, 140, 143, 145, 153 Greentech 87 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 26, 80-81, 92-93, 99, 102, 110, 121, 142 Gymnasium 115 H Habeck, Robert 12, 25-26, 82, 169 Hamburg 7, 13, 20, 29, 92, 151, 156-157, 163, 169 Hanover 7 Helmholtz Association 99, 103 Hesse 7, 13 Hidden Champions 78, 81, 91 Higher education institutions 96, 98-102, 104-108, High tech strategy 93, 102 Hiking trails 167 Housing 55, 119, 127, 154, 157, 163 Human rights 27, 38, 41, 43, 48, 54, 56, 59, 78, 86-87, 151 Humboldt Foundation 101, 108-109, 145 I Immigrants 43, 129 Imports 81 Industry 4.0 78, 83, 91, 93 Infrastructure 83, 158 Inhabitants 6-7 Innovation 27, 81-83, 93, 103, 106 Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen (ifa) 145 Integration 38, 42, 44-46, 109, 122, 124-125, 128, 164 Internet 83, 93, 149-150 Islam 130-131 J Judaism 36-37, 118, 131 K Kiel 7, 84 L Land area 20-21 Legislation 4, 6, 9, 28, 132 Leibniz Association 99, 103 Life expectancy 18-19 Lindner, Christian 12, 25-26 Literature 141, 144 Lower Saxony 7, 13, 168 M Magdeburg 6, 20 Mainz 7, 100, 151 Mann, Thomas 141 Master’s degrees 108 Max Planck Society (MPG) 98, 102 Mechanical and plant engineering 81 Mecklenburg-West Pomerania 7, 13, 167-168 Media 35, 92, 138, 140, 143, 149, 151 Members of Parliament 8-9, 12-13, 30, 32, 33, 40, 44, 46 Merkel, Angela 15, 25, 29, 31 Migration 95, 120, 122, 124-125, 128, 153, 164, Minimum wage 26, 94 Mittelstand/SMEs 78, 80-82, 91
FACTS ABOUT GERMANY 174 | 175 U Unemployment 113, 120- 133 United Nations (UN) 54 Universities 98, 100-101, 104, 107-108 Universities of Applied Sciences 104 V Vocational training 82, 93, 99, 112-113 Volunteering 125, 136 W Welfare state 116, 121, 132 Wellness 167 Wiesbaden 7 Wind power 68 Wine 160 World Heritage sites 140, 166, 168 Young people 112-113, 115, 123, 131 Z Zugspitze 20 Munich 7, 92-93, 105, 151, 157, 162-164, 169 Music colleges 105 Restaurants 161 Rhine 20-21 Rhineland-Palatinate 7, 13 Riesling 161 N National anthem 17 National holidays 16 National parks 62, 76, 167 Nazism / National Socialism 22, 36 North Rhine-Westphalia 7, 13 Nuclear power 64, 67, 73 O Organization for Security and Co- operation in Europe (OSCE) 43, 51 P Parental allowance 121, 134-135 Parental leave 122-125 Parliament 4, 9, 12, 24, 28-29, 31, 40, 44 Parties 4, 12, 25, 28-30, 35 Partnerships 42, 58, 68, 72, 126, 131 Patents 93, 110 Peace missions 43, 50 Pensions 132-133 Population 18, 31, 37, 45, 118, 121, 126, 130, 157 Potsdam 7, 166 Press 138, 143, 148, 151 Primary school 115 Protestant church 130 Quality of life 138, 154, 158, 163 R Radio 142-143, 151 Religion 130-131 Renewable energy 63, 67 Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) 67, 73 Research 77, 81, 90, 96, 98-111 Research and Development (R&D) 27, 68, 81, 91, 93, 99, 102, 110 S Saarbrücken 7, 151 Saarland 7, 13 Saxony-Anhalt 7, 13, 158, 167 Saxony 7, 13, 161, 167 Schiller, Friedrich von 141 Schleswig-Holstein 13, 20, 168 Scholz, Olaf 10-12, 15, 22, 24-27, 29, 31, 42, 47, 71, 89 Schools Abroad 115, 153 School system 96, 114-115 Schwerin 7 Single parents 126 Skilled workers 27, 78, 83, 94-95, 120, 122, 124, 143, 152-153 Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 12-13, 25 Social market economy 63, 82, 86 Solar power 70 Sport 111, 121, 136, 154, 156, 164, 166 Sport funding 165 Standard of living 156-157 Steinmeier, Frank-Walter 10, 15, 24, 30-31, 33, 111 Stuttgart 7, 92, 151 Sustainability 26-27, 83, 102 T Television 148-149 Theaters 140, 144, 147 The Left 12-13, 25 Thuringia 7, 13, 30, 167 Tourism 156, 166-168 Trade fairs 166 Trade unions 112 Two-Track Vocational Training 96, 99 112-113
G E T T I N G A RO U N D I N G E R M A N Y From visas to voltages: useful information and important contact numbers for travellers in Germany Visas and ID When entering the country, foreigners need a valid passport or replacement docu- ments. Citizens of most states in western Europe require only a valid ID card. In most cases, children re- quire their own travel documenta- tion. Travellers from certain coun- tries require a visa to enter Ger- many. Travellers should contact Germany’s embassies and consu- lates for more information. → auswaertiges-amt.de By plane: All the major internation- al airlines operate routes to Ger- many. The global network connects 22 airports in Germany with all re- gions of the world. The largest air- ports are in Frankfurt am Main, Munich, Berlin and Düsseldorf. All airports have good connections to onward transport networks. → frankfurt-airport.de → munich-airport.de → berlin-airport.de → dus.com By train: Germany’s rail network covers the whole country, at around 38,000km in length. The timetables are arranged to allow easy connec- tions between local and long-dis- tance routes. Deutsche Bahn, Ger- many’s national rail operator, oper- ates around 250 daily international services from Germany to over 80 European cities. Deutsche Bahn phone hotline: Tel.: +49 30 2970 → bahn.de By bus: It is also easy to get around Germany by long-distance bus, with several hundred long-distance bus routes. Urban areas are particu- larly well served, as all German cit- ies and many smaller towns can be reached by long-distance bus routes. Long-distance bus travel information: → busliniensuche.de → fernbusse.de the cheaper price brackets. Tourism associations and tourist informa- tion offices provide specific lists of accommodation providers. → germany.travel Youth hostel: Over 400 youth hos- tels in Germany belong to the Ger- man Youth Hostel Association, which is affiliated with the Inter- national Youth Hostel Federation. International travellers can pur- chase an international guest pass which allows them to stay in the hostels. German Youth Hostel Association → jugendherberge.de Currency and money: The euro is legal tender in Germany. 1 euro = 100 cents. You can withdraw cash at any time from ATMs using an EC card or international credit or debit card. All valid credit and debit cards are accepted. Prices are inclusive. Emergency contact numbers: Tel.: 110 for police emergencies Tel.: 112 for fire and ambulance services Time zone: Germany is in the cen- tral European time zone (CET). Summer time applies between late March and late October, with the clocks moved forward by one hour. The clocks go forward on the last Sunday in March and go back on the last Sunday in October. Electricity: The electricity supply runs at 230 volts. By car: Germany’s road network is state-of-the-art. Hundreds of mo- torway service stations and petrol stations are open round the clock on Germany’s 13,000km network of Autobahns. Motorists can fill up with the following unleaded fuels: Super (95 octane), Super Plus (98 octane) and diesel. The network of charging stations for electric cars is continuously expanding. Unless otherwise indicated by speed limit signs, there is no speed limit on the Autobahn, although motorists are advised to drive no faster than 130km/h. A speed limit of 50km/h applies in built-up areas and 100km/h elsewhere. There are no fees for driving on German Auto bahns. Seatbelts must be worn by law. Children up to 150cm in height must have a child seat. Roadside emergency telephones are available to contact the emer- gency services or roadside assis- tance. Germany’s major motoring clubs are the ADAC and the AvD, which provide for tourists travelling by car. ADAC roadside assistance contact number: Tel.: +49 89 20 20 4000, → adac.de AvD emergency contact number: Tel.: +49 80 09 90 99 09, → avd.de information Where to stay: Accommodation is available in every class and cat- egory, from private rooms to holi- day flats and luxury hotels. Stand- ards are set and monitored, even in
Table of distances in Germany (km) Longer distances in Germany are measured in kilometres. One kilometre is equivalent to 0.62 miles, and one mile is equivalent to 1.61km. . 0 50 100 km n e k c ü r b r a a S t r a g t t u t S M / t r u f k n a r F d n u m t r o D 507 g r u b e d g a M g i z p i e L n e h c a A • n e h c n ü M g r e b n r ü N k c o t s o R 68 581 • 220 392 278 341 f r e o h d u l e r s s l s r ü a D K 80 256 482 354 346 r e v o n n a H g r u b m a H n e n d i s l e r e r D B 638 154 651 638 • 154 492 • 651 193 507 • 80 556 g r u b z n r l ü ö W K 73 569 494 631 475 663 263 518 370 492 193 556 545 286 285 673 575 184 153 585 438 223 723 632 495 68 224 349 210 358 95 428 350 617 428 520 321 420 338 581 492 495 382 581 591 140 225 491 325 444 671 525 382 42 500 417 611 438 562 277 401 338 512 361 132 191 405 444 412 228 680 190 201 128 482 286 349 495 392 512 • 152 631 370 391 270 781 612 133 688 658 507 354 285 210 382 278 361 152 • 489 294 247 136 661 488 320 551 534 377 346 673 358 581 341 132 631 489 • 80 199 73 575 481 422 577 422 567 282 373 289 569 184 428 140 500 405 391 247 521 481 • 88 418 260 371 588 466 408 494 153 350 225 417 444 270 136 558 422 511 349 321 606 559 449 631 585 617 491 611 412 781 661 271 577 418 511 • 159 781 421 212 291 475 438 428 325 438 228 612 488 261 422 260 349 159 • 601 362 218 109 663 223 520 444 562 680 133 320 809 567 371 321 781 601 • 851 812 694 263 723 321 671 277 190 688 551 188 282 588 606 421 362 851 • 213 314 518 632 420 525 401 201 658 534 149 370 495 338 382 338 128 507 377 199 289 408 449 291 109 694 314 149 • Aachen Berlin Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Frankfurt/M. 256 545 224 492 220 • Hamburg Hannover Karlsruhe Köln Leipzig Magdeburg München Nürnberg Rostock Saarbrücken Stuttgart Würzburg 80 373 466 559 212 218 812 213 • 95 591 42 191 370 294 303 • 303 521 558 271 261 809 188 88 • No guarantee for accuracy
Whatever you want to know about Germany today, you can find in “Facts about Germany”. How does the political system work? What principles shape foreign policy? What makes the German economy special? Which issues are people talking about? What’s new in art and culture? And much more. In an up-to-date, trustworthy and concise format, this handbook includes facts, figures and illustrations, to give readers a detailed introduction and insights into all aspects of life in modern Germany. facts-about-germany.de 978-3-96251-157-9